Clinical implications of atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance, favor endometrial origin

Cancer (Impact Factor: 5.2). 12/2001; 93(6):351 - 356. DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10139

The Bethesda System recommends qualifying atypical glandular cells with regard to their possible origin: endocervical versus endometrial. This study was undertaken to determine the clinical significance of atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance that favor an endometrial origin (AGUS-EM).METHODSA computer search identified 62 cervicovaginal smears (5.25% of all smears classified as AGUS) with a diagnosis of AGUS-EM in the files of Shared Cytopathology Laboratory of New York University Medical Center/Bellevue Hospital Medical Center between January 1995 and December 1999. The patients ranged in age from 29 years to 88 years (mean age, 53 years). Thirty-four patients were postmenopausal (55%), and 5 patients were on hormonal replacement therapy. Follow-up was available for 56 patients (90%); 45 patients (73%) underwent biopsy, and 11 patients (17%) had repeat cervicovaginal smears. Six patients were lost to follow-up.RESULTSAmong patients who underwent biopsy, 14 patients (31%) had a clinically significant uterine lesions, including 6 (13%) endometrial adenocarcinomas, 5 (11%) endometrial hyperplasias, and 3 (7%) squamous lesions (2 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and 1 squamous cell carcinoma). Ten of 11 patients with significant endometrial pathology findings were postmenopausal. The remaining 31 patients had benign pathology results, which included chronic cervicitis, endometritis, endometrial polyps, microglandular hyperplasia, and tubal metaplasia. Among the patients with repeat cervicovaginal smears, one patient had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; the remaining patients were within normal limits.CONCLUSIONS
Approximately one-third of women with a diagnosis of AGUS-EM had a significant uterine lesion on subsequent biopsy; the majority of these lesions were endometrial in origin. Patients with a diagnosis of AGUS-EM on cervicovaginal smears should be followed closely, and endometrial curettage or biopsy should be included in their initial work-up. Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 2001;93:351–6. © 2001 American Cancer Society.

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    ABSTRACT: Endometrial hyperplasia is a precursor to the most common gynecologic cancer diagnosed in women: endometrial cancer of endometrioid histology. It is most often diagnosed in postmenopausal women, but women at any age with unopposed estrogen from any source are at an increased risk for developing endometrial hyperplasia. Hyperplasia with cytologic atypia represents the greatest risk for progression to endometrial carcinoma and the presence of concomitant carcinoma in women with endometrial hyperplasia. Abnormal uterine bleeding is the most common presenting symptom of endometrial hyperplasia. Specific Pap smear findings and endometrial thickness per ultrasound could also suggest the diagnosis. Unopposed estrogen in women taking hormone replacement therapy increases the risk of endometrial hyperplasia. Tamoxifen has demonstrated its efficacy in treating women at risk for breast cancer, but it increases the risk of endometrial hyperplasia. The choice of treatment for endometrial hyperplasia is dependent on patient age, the presence of cytologic atypia, the desire for future childbearing, and surgical risk. Endometrial hyperplasia without atypia responds well to progestins. However, women with atypical hyperplasia should be treated with hysterectomy unless other factors preclude surgery. TARGET AUDIENCE: Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Family Physicians. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After completion of this article, the reader should be able to describe the definition and classification of endometrial hyperplasia, to outline the clinical features of a patient with endometrial hyperplasia, to point out the natural history of endometrial hyperplasia, and to summarize the diagnostic options for patients with endometrial hyperplasia.
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    ABSTRACT: The 2001 Bethesda System for Reporting Cervical Cytology recommends reporting benign exfoliated endometrial cells in women age 40 and older, and a review of the literature supports this recommendation. Stromal cells and histiocytes do not need to be reported. The effect of hormonal therapy on endometrial shedding is reviewed. Clinical information should be provided to the laboratory so that appropriate educational notes can be appended to the cytology report. Benign endometrial cells in premenopausal women in the first half of the cycle are not associated with significant pathology and such women do not need additional evaluation. Significant pathology is also unlikely in the second half of the cycle and evaluation may not be required unless clinically indicated. Initial evaluation of other women with benign endometrial cells may include either endometrial sampling or transvaginal ultrasound. Atypical endometrial cells are associated with a higher rate of significant pathology and should lead to additional evaluation. Additional prospective studies on the management of patients with endometrial cells on Pap tests are needed.
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the clinical significance of a cervical cytological diagnosis of atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance and to formulate the most appropriate management guidelines for patients with such a diagnosis. Retrospective study. Regional hospital, Hong Kong. Seventy-two patients with diagnoses of atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance who were managed in a colposcopy clinic between January 1998 and December 1999. Age, cytological diagnoses of atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance and its subtypes, method of evaluation, final diagnosis, and outcome after 2 years. Atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance were diagnosed in 83 (0.4%) of 21 854 cervical smear samples taken during the 2-year study period. Follow-up data were available from 72 patients, whose mean age was 43 years (range, 22-69 years). Forty-three percent of these patients had significant diseases of the genital tract. Patients with the subtype diagnosis of atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance-favour neoplasia had the worst outcome, with 90% of patients having significant disease, followed by patients with atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance "not otherwise specified" (43%), and atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance-favour reactive (8%). Patients with atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance should be investigated early and thoroughly, because many of them will have premalignant or malignant disease.
    Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi / Hong Kong Academy of Medicine 11/2003; 9(5):346-51.

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