Tolerance of freshwater test organisms to formulated sediments for use as control materials in whole‐sediment toxicity tests
ABSTRACT A method is described for preparing formulated sediments for use intoxicity testing. Ingredients used to prepare formulated sediments included commercially available silt, clay, sand, humic acid, dolomite, and α-cellulose (as a source of organic carbon). α-Cellulose was selected as the source of organic carbon because it is commercially available, consistent from batch to batch, and low in contaminant concentrations. The tolerance of freshwater test organisms to formulated sediments for use as control materials in whole-sediment toxicity testing was evaluated. Sediment exposures were conducted for 10 d with the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the midges Chironomus riparius and C. tentans, and the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus and for 28 d with H. azteca. Responses of organisms in formulated sediments was compared with a field-collected control sediment that has routinely been used to determine test acceptability. Tolerance of organisms to formulated sediments was evaluated by determining responses to varying levels of α-cellulose, to varying levels of grain size, to evaluation of different food types, or to evaluation of different sources of overlying water. In the 10-d exposures, survival of organisms exposed to the formulated sediments routinely met or exceeded the responses of test organisms exposed to the control sediment and routinely met test acceptability criteria required in standard methods. Growth of amphipods and oligochaetes in 10-d exposures with formulated sediment was often less than growth of organisms in the field-collected control sediment. Additional research is needed, using the method employed to prepare formulated sediment, to determine if conditioning formulated sediments before starting 10-d tests would improve the growth of amphipods. In the 28-d exposures, survival of H. azteca was low when reconstituted water was used as the source of overlying water. However, when well water was used as the source of overlying water in 28-d exposures, consistent responses of amphipods were observed in both formulated and control sediments.
Article: A comparison of chronic cadmium effects on Hyalella azteca in effluent-dominated stream mesocosms to similar laboratory exposures in effluent and reconstituted hard water.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Laboratory single-species toxicity tests are used to assess the effects of contaminants on aquatic biota. Questions remain as to how accurately these toxicity tests predict site-specific bioavailability and chronic effects of metals, particularly in streams that are effluent-dominated or dependent on effluent discharge for flow. Concurrent 42-d Hyalella azteca exposures were performed with cadmium and final treated municipal effluent in the laboratory and at the University of North Texas Stream Research Facility (Denton, TX, USA), a series of outdoor lotic mesocosms. An additional 42-d laboratory test was conducted with H. azteca to evaluate Cd toxicity in reconstituted hard water (RHW). Endpoints included Cd body burden, survival, growth, and reproduction. Calculated average bioaccumulation factors were: 2,581 (stream mesocosm test) < 3,626 (laboratory effluent) < 7,382 (laboratory RHW). The 42-d survival lowest-observed-effect concentrations (LOECs) were 0.94, 4.53, and 22.97 microg/L for the laboratory RHW, laboratory effluent, and stream mesocosm exposures, respectively. Baseline growth (dry wt) and reproduction (young female(-1)) among the three exposures followed the relationship: Stream mesocosms > laboratory effluent > laboratory RHW. Differences among response variables in the three tests likely resulted from increased food sources and decreased Cd bioavailability in lotic mesocosms. Our results demonstrate that laboratory toxicity tests may overestimate chronic toxicity responses of H. azteca to Cd in effluent-dominated streams.Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 04/2005; 24(4):902-8. · 2.81 Impact Factor