[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared the brain areas that showed significant flow changes induced by selective stimulation of muscle and cutaneous afferents using fMRI BOLD imaging. Afferents arising from the right hand were studied in eight volunteers with electrical stimulation of the digital nerve of the index finger and over the motor point of the FDI muscle. Both methods evoked areas of significant activation cortically, subcortically, and in the cerebellum. Selective muscle afferent stimulation caused significant activation in motor-related areas. It also caused significantly greater activation within the contralateral precentral gyrus, insula, and within the ipsilateral cerebellum as well as greater areas of reduced blood flow when compared to the cutaneous stimuli. We demonstrated separate precentral and postcentral foci of excitation with muscle afferent stimulation. We conclude, contrary to the findings with evoked potentials, that muscle afferents evoke more widespread cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar activation than do cutaneous afferents. This emphasizes the importance, for studies of movement, of matching the kinematic aspects in order to avoid the results being confounded by alterations in muscle afferent activation. The findings are consistent with clinical observations of the movement consequences of sensory loss and may also be the basis for the contribution of disturbed sensorimotor processing to disorders of movement.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Development of clinical neurological assessments aimed at separating normal from abnormal capabilities requires a comprehensive understanding of how basic neurological functions change (or do not change) with increasing age across adulthood. In the case of proprioception, the research literature has failed to conclusively determine whether or not position sense in the upper limb deteriorates in elderly individuals. The present study was conducted a) to quantify whether upper limb position sense deteriorates with increasing age, and b) to generate a set of normative data that can be used for future comparisons with clinical populations.
We examined position sense in 209 healthy males and females between the ages of 18 and 90 using a robotic arm position-matching task that is both objective and reliable. In this task, the robot moved an arm to one of nine positions and subjects attempted to mirror-match that position with the opposite limb. Measures of position sense were recorded by the robotic apparatus in hand-and joint-based coordinates, and linear regressions were used to quantify age-related changes and percentile boundaries of normal behaviour. For clinical comparisons, we also examined influences of sex (male versus female) and test-hand (dominant versus non-dominant) on all measures of position sense.
Analyses of hand-based parameters identified several measures of position sense (Variability, Shift, Spatial Contraction, Absolute Error) with significant effects of age, sex, and test-hand. Joint-based parameters at the shoulder (Absolute Error) and elbow (Variability, Shift, Absolute Error) also exhibited significant effects of age and test-hand.
The present study provides strong evidence that several measures of upper extremity position sense exhibit declines with age. Furthermore, this data provides a basis for quantifying when changes in position sense are related to normal aging or alternatively, pathology.
Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 03/2014; 11(1):43. · 2.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper aims at valorising an artisanal honey based alcoholic beverage from northern Cameroon (Africa). The studied process production involved most of stage required for production of mead with difference in starter preparation and handling which include a step of drying and smoking. The must preparation also present light difference with the one of wine production as there's no activator neither extra nutrients added. But a step of preparation of a so called "Mbii dong" is necessary. "Mbii dong" is a mixture of diluted honey with hot pepper or sometime spices. Some of the accessed physicochemical parameters which include pH, total titrable acidity, residual sugar and total polyphenols indicate similarities with that of mead. It also has to highlight the relatively high alcohol (around 15.4±0.6%) content of the beverage. The recorded values of physicochemical components as alcoholic, volatile acidity, polyphenols… may confirm the fact that a part of festivities, "kuri" can be used as medicines.
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