Article

Kinesthetic sensibility.

Physiological Reviews (Impact Factor: 30.17). 11/1978; 58(4):763-820.
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: There is little information available regarding how proprioceptive abilities decline as the amount of exertion increases during exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of different levels of fatigue on knee joint position sense. A repeated measures design was used to examine changes in active joint reposition sense (AJRS) prior to and following three levels of fatigue. Eighteen participants performed knee extension and flexion isokinetic exercise until torque output was 90%, 70%, or 50% of the peak hamstring torque for three consecutive repetitions. Active joint reposition sense at 15, 30, or 45 degrees was tested following the isokinetic exercise session. Following testing of the first independent measure, participants were given a 20 minute rest period. Testing procedures were repeated for two more exercise sessions following the other levels of fatigue. Testing of each AJRS test angle was conducted on three separate days with 48 hours between test days. Significant main effect for fatigue was indicated (p = 0.001). Pairwise comparisons indicated a significant difference between the pre-test and following 90% of peak hamstring torque (p = 0.02) and between the pre-test and following 50% of peak hamstring torque (p = 0.02). Fatigue has long been theorized to be a contributing factor in decreased proprioceptive acuity, and therefore a contributing factor to joint injury. The findings of the present study indicate that fatigue may have an effect on proprioception following mild and maximum fatigue. Key pointsA repeated measures design was used to examine the effect of different levels of fatigue on active joint reposition sense (AJRS) of the knee at joint angles of 15°, 30° and 45° of flexion.A statistically significant main effect for fatigue was found, specifically between no fatigue and mild fatigue and no fatigue and maximum fatigue.A statistically significant interaction effect between AJRS and fatigue was not found.Secondary analysis of the results indicated a potential plateau effect of AJRS as fatigue continues to increase.Further investigation of the effect of increasing levels of fatigue on proprioception is warranted.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective β-band corticomuscular coherence is suggested as an electrophysiological mechanism that contributes to sensorimotor functioning in the maintenance of steady-state contractions. Converging evidence suggests that not only the descending corticospinal pathway but the ascending sensory feedback pathway is involved in the generation of β-band corticomuscular coherence. The present study aimed to investigate which pathway, descending vs. ascending, contributes more to the stability of muscle contraction, especially for human intrinsic hand muscles. Methods In this study, we assessed directed transfer function (DTF) between magnetoencephalography signals over the sensorimotor cortex (SMC) and rectified electromyographic (EMG) signals recorded during steady-state isometric contraction of the right thumb muscle (flexor pollicis brevis, FPB) or right little finger muscle (flexor digiti minimi brevis, FDMB) in 15 right-handed healthy subjects. Resultsl β-band DTF was statistically significant in both descending (SMC→EMG) and ascending (EMG→SMC) directions, and mean phase delays for each direction were in agreement with the conduction time for the descending corticospinal and ascending sensory feedback pathways. The strengths of the β-band DTF (EMG→SMC direction) were greater in the FPB muscle than in the FDMB muscle, while the strengths of the β-band DTF (SMC→EMG direction) were not different between the two muscles. Moreover, the β-band DTF (EMG→SMC direction) was greater in the “Stable” period than in the “Less Stable” period within the FDMB muscle. Greater DTF (EMG→SMC direction) was positively associated with the stability of muscle contraction. Conclusions Our findings suggest that ascending β-band oscillatory activity may promote a steady-state isometric contraction by efficiently transmitting sensory feedback from finger muscles to the sensorimotor cortex. Significance The results show the differential contribution of the ascending part of the corticomuscular network depending on the functional organization.
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