In this review each candidate for a role in kinesthesia is discussed at first alone, starting with the afferent inputs from joints, then from muscles, and then from skin and following with the efferent mechanisms, the sensations of innervation. An analysis of the integrated operation of these various components follows. In considering sensations of position and movement, the viewpoint introduced and defended by Goodwin, McCloskey, and Matthews (104) and subsequently expanded in recent reviews by Goodwin (100) and by Matthews (194) is again taken here - that is, that muscle afferents are important for such sensations and that sensations of innervation per se are not. Sensations of muscular force, or heaviness, also are considered here and the conclusion is reached that both muscle afferents and sensations of innervation are important.
"Cervical proprioception is the sense of position of the head or neck in space, describing the complex interaction between afferent and efferent receptors to monitor the position and movement (Newcomer et al., 2000). In the cervical spine, this sense has its neurological basis in muscle spindles (Proske and Gandevia, 2012) and, to a lesser extent, in tendon organs (Golgi receptors) (Hogervorst and Brand, 1998), cutaneous receptors, and joint receptors (McCloskey, 1978; Grigg, 1994; Lephart et al., 1997; Proske et al., 2000). The cervical muscles provide information to (Bolton et al., 1998) and receive information from the central nervous system (Kalaska, 1994; Hellstr€ om et al., 2005). "
"Observations of the kind made by Merton generated a flurry of experiments by many others, since here the issue at stake was the role of muscle receptors in conscious sensation . For a review, see McCloskey (1978). In perhaps the definitive experiment on this point, when, in a conscious subject, a muscle tendon was exposed under local anaesthesia , stretch of the tendon was reported as a sensation of rotation of the joint to which the muscle was attached. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The traditional view of the neural basis for the sense of muscle force is that it is generated at least in part within the brain. Recently it has been proposed that force sensations do not arise entirely centrally and that there is a contribution from peripheral receptors within the contracting muscle. Evidence comes from experiments on thumb flexor and elbow flexor muscles. Here we have studied the sense of force in plantar flexor muscles of the human ankle, looking for further evidence for such a mechanism. The active angle-torque curve was measured for muscles of both legs, and for each muscle, ankle angles were identified on the ascending and descending limbs of the curve where active forces were similar. In a plantar flexion force matching task, subjects were asked to match the force in one foot, generated on the ascending limb of the curve, with force in the other foot, generated on the descending limb. It was hypothesised that despite active forces being similar, the sensation generated in the more stretched muscle should be greater because of the contribution from its peripheral stretch receptors, leading to an overestimation of the force in the stretched muscle. It was found that provided that the comparison was between active forces, there was no difference in the forces generated by the two legs, supporting the central hypothesis for the sense of force. When total forces were matched, including a component of passive force due to muscle stretch, subjects seemed to ignore the passive component. Yet subjects had an acute sense of passive force, provided that the muscles remained relaxed. It was concluded that subjects had two senses, a sense of active force, generated centrally, and a sense of passive force, or perhaps muscle stretch, generated within the muscle itself.
Experimental Brain Research 05/2015; 233(7). DOI:10.1007/s00221-015-4287-8 · 2.04 Impact Factor
"Afferent sensory feedback about the peripheral state to the cortex along with sensorimotor integration is necessary to accomplish not only dynamic but also steady-state motor output. b-band oscillatory activity was shown to occur in the firing of muscle spindle primary afferents (Baker et al., 2006), which provide information about muscle length and joint position to the central nervous system (Goodwin et al., 1972; McCloskey, 1978). In addition, previous studies in monkeys indicated that causal influence of the primary somatosensory cortex on the primary motor cortex in b-band may indicate feedback control of the motor drive to maintain steady contractions (Brovelli et al., 2004; Tsujimoto et al., 2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: β-Band corticomuscular coherence is suggested as an electrophysiological mechanism that contributes to sensorimotor functioning in the maintenance of steady-state contractions. Converging evidence suggests that not only the descending corticospinal pathway but the ascending sensory feedback pathway is involved in the generation of β-band corticomuscular coherence. The present study aimed to investigate which pathway, descending vs. ascending, contributes more to the stability of muscle contraction, especially for human intrinsic hand muscles.
Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 10/2014; 125(10). DOI:10.1016/j.clinph.2014.02.006 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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