Article

Some new, simple and efficient stereological methods and their use in pathological research and diagnosis

Apmis (Impact Factor: 1.92). 12/1987; 96(1‐6):379 - 394. DOI: 10.1111/j.1699-0463.1988.tb05320.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Stereology is a set of simple and efficient methods for quantitation of three-dimensional microscopic structures which is specifically tuned to provide reliable data from sections. Within the last few years, a number of new methods has been developed which are of special interest to pathologists. Methods for estimating the volume, surface area and length of any structure are described in this review. The principles on which stereology is based and the necessary sampling procedures are described and illustrated with examples. The necessary equipment, the measurements, and the calculations are invariably simple and easy.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
175 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) affect up to 1 in 68 children. Autism-specific autoantibodies directed against fetal brain proteins have been found exclusively in a subpopulation of mothers whose children were diagnosed with ASD or maternal autoantibody-related autism. We tested the impact of autoantibodies on brain development in mice by transferring human antigen-specific IgG directly into the cerebral ventricles of embryonic mice during cortical neurogenesis. We show that autoantibodies recognize radial glial cells during development. We also show that prenatal exposure to autism-specific maternal autoantibodies increased cellular proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the embryonic neocortex, increased adult brain size also and weight, and increased the size of adult cortical neurons. We propose that prenatal exposure to autism-specific maternal autoantibodies directly affects radial glial cell development and presents a viable pathologic mechanism for the maternal autoantibody-related prenatal ASD risk factor. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Cerebral Cortex 12/2014; · 8.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As a common sessile filter feeder with high bioconcentration rates, Dreissena polymorpha is useful as a bioindicator species. Pollution and environmental factors influence the reproductive effort of these bivalves. Therefore, the evaluation of the gametogenic cycle is important for understanding environmentally-related physiological alterations in this dioecious species. Animals from an unpolluted reference site close to the highly polluted Seine River, France, were monitored monthly over 1 year using qualitative and quantitative measures of gametogenesis. Developmental stages of the gonad were determined by visual inspection of histological slides. Unbiased quantitative stereological analysis was conducted to estimate oocyte development and the gonad index was determined. To investigate a possible role of female sex steroids in bivalve gametogenesis as a possible target for xenoestrogens, free oestradiol levels were assessed and analysed with respect to oocyte development. The basic pattern of the reproductive cycle consisted of early gametogenesis during autumn and winter, followed by rapid vitellogenesis in early spring, and spawning towards the summer months. However, the population was characterized by high inter-individual variability of the gonad stages. Furthermore, the simultaneous occurrence of different developmental stages within the same animal made classification difficult. Stereological determination of oocyte volumes as well as gonadosomatic index provided a more precise evaluation of reproductive effort. Oestradiol levels did vary significantly between months, but did not show any clear relationship with a particular stage of gametogenesis or oocyte volume.
    Journal of Molluscan Studies 02/2015; 81(1):58-65. · 1.50 Impact Factor
  • Source

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
1,504 Downloads
Available from
Jun 1, 2014