Significance of intraoperative ureteral evaluation at radical cystectomy for urothelial cancer
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND.Patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) for urothelial cancer are at increased risk for upper tract recurrence and anastomotic recurrence. In an attempt to reduce this recurrence risk, urologists employ intraoperative frozen sections to achieve an uninvolved ureteral margin. The utility of this surgical approach was examined.METHODS.A retrospective review identified 1330 bladder cancer patients from 1990 to 2004 with pathologic evaluation of their ureters. Using pathologic findings on permanent section as the reference standard, the accuracy of ureteral frozen sections was examined. Ureteral involvement and margin status were examined as risk factors for upper tract and anastomotic recurrence and overall survival.RESULTS.Of 2579 ureteral margins evaluated in 1330 patients, ureteral involvement was noted in 9% of ureters (13% of patients). The sensitivity and specificity of frozen section analyses were approximately 75% and 99%, respectively. The 5-year probability of anastomotic and upper tract recurrences was low: 2% and 13%, respectively. Evidence of involvement of the ureter or at the ureteral anastomotic margin was associated with higher likelihood of upper tract recurrence but not anastomotic recurrence or overall survival. Furthermore, sequential resection of ureters to reach a negative anastomotic ureteral margin did not eliminate the risk of anastomotic or upper tract recurrence.CONCLUSIONS.Patients with involved ureters and/or ureteral anastomotic margins have a higher risk of upper tract recurrence. However, the overall risk of recurrence is low and is not clearly associated with overall survival. The data do not support routine intraoperative frozen sections to assess ureteral involvement. Cancer 2006. © 2006 American Cancer Society.
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ABSTRACT: Risk factors for the development of an upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma following radical cystectomy are identified. The records of 430 patients who underwent cystectomy for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder between 1981 and 1988 were retrospectively reviewed. Upper tract tumors developed in 11 patients (2.6%) at a median of 40 months after radical cystectomy. Of the potential risk factors evaluated only the presence of transitional cell carcinoma within the distal ureter showed a statistically significant correlation with upper tract recurrence (p = 0.001). Six of the 11 recurrent neoplasms were asymptomatic. Among the patients with upper urinary tract recurrence 5 died of disease, 4 had no evidence of disease and 2 were alive with cancer. Patients with distal ureteral involvement at cystectomy are at a high risk for upper tract recurrence. These patients should be monitored with routine upper tract cytology and imaging studies.The Journal of Urology 03/1996; 155(2):501-3. · 3.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The pathology of the remnant urinary tract in an increasing population of cystectomy patients with orthotopic and heterotopic bladder substitution due to primary bladder carcinoma, and its management is discussed. The incidence of urethral tumours in primary or recurrent bladder cancer in long-term studies is approximately 6% for male and 2% for female patients. Risk factors for urethral tumour occurrence are tumours at the bladder neck and recurrent multifocal tumours. CIS of the bladder not involving the bladder neck, and muscle invasive tumours with or without lymph node involvement are not significantly correlated with urethral cancer. Those patients at risk for urethral tumours need additional work-up (multiple urethral biopsies and/or urethral brushings, frozen section of the membranous urethra) before an orthotopic lower urinary tract reconstruction to the urethra should be considered. In a large series of male patients, the majority of patients with urethral tumours had a single conservative treatment session, and did not recur thereafter demonstrating the feasibility of a conservative approach for superficial urethral tumour recurrences in patients with an orthotopic neo-bladder to the urethra. The incidence of upper tract tumours following cystectomy and lower urinary tract reconstruction lies between 2.4-17%. In a group of 258 patients with an orthotopic bladder substitution, we have seen an incidence of 3.5%. Tumour multifocality, carcinoma in situ in the bladder and/or distal ureter, locally advanced bladder tumour stage, and invasion of the intramural ureter were seen as risk factors in some series. A tendency for a higher incidence can be seen in those series with longer follow-up. The median time between cystectomy and diagnosis of upper tract tumours lies between 8 and 69 months in most series. A longer observation period in larger numbers of patients with an orthotopic neo-bladder and longer survival rates in general after cystectomy may reveal an increase in the incidence of upper tract tumours over the next decade.European Urology 03/2002; 41(2):124-31. · 10.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We evaluated the prognostic factors of primary superficial bladder cancer that may predict a metachronous upper urinary tract tumor. We also determined whether the incidence of upper urinary tract disease varies according to risk group based on primary superficial bladder tumor classification. We studied disease evolution in a cohort of 1,529 patients with a primary superficial bladder tumor. To determine the prognostic factors of upper urinary tract cancer we performed multivariate analysis using Cox regression. Independent variables were grade, T stage, multiplicity, tumor size, carcinoma in situ association, previous or synchronous upper urinary tract tumor and intravesical instillation. We also performed the chi-square test and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to assess the variable incidence of upper urinary tract tumors according to primary superficial bladder tumor risk group classification. The incidence of upper urinary tract cancer was 2.6%. The only factor prognostic for an upper urinary tract tumor was multiplicity (relative risk 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06 to 6.84). All patients with an upper urinary tract tumor had a previously recurrent primary superficial bladder tumor. In the low, intermediate and high risk groups the incidence of upper urinary tract cancer was 0.6% (relative risk 1), 1.8% (relative risk 3.1, 95% CI 0.4 to 23.9) and 4.1% (relative risk 8.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 61.6), respectively (chi-square and log rank tests p = 0.007 and p <0.05, respectively). A higher risk of upper urinary tract cancer must be expected in cases of multiple primary superficial bladder tumors. This finding supports the multicentricity theory of transitional cell carcinoma. Primary superficial bladder tumor classification by risk group is also useful for predicting the various risks of metachronous upper urinary tract cancer.The Journal of Urology 11/2000; 164(4):1183-7. · 3.70 Impact Factor