Elevated serum homocysteine levels in male patients with PTSD
ABSTRACT It has been suggested that an elevated serum or plasma homocysteine level may be a risk factor for neuropsychiatric conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and depression. Because depression is closely related to anxiety disorders, and because it has been suggested that stress may be associated with an elevated homocysteine level, we studied whether serum homocysteine levels are elevated in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Total serum homocysteine levels in 28 male patients with PTSD were compared to those of 223 healthy controls. The effect of PTSD on the serum homocysteine level was significant (F=42.96, P<.0001). In a regression model for the PTSD patients, the duration of PTSD was found to predict serum homocysteine levels (t=2.228, P=.035). Our results suggest that elevated levels of homocysteine in male patients with PTSD may be related to pathophysiological aspects associated with the chronicity of this disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: This paper evaluated the effect of acute homocysteine administration on inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) expression and neuronal apoptosis in the rat hippocampus and investigated the effects of vitamin C treatment on homocysteine-induced inflammation and neuronal death. Subjects were three-week-old, male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats for the control group, we injected saline solution into the rats' abdominal cavities for one week. Rats in the second group received 1 injection of homocysteine (11 mmol/kg) into their abdominal cavities after 1 week of saline solution administration. For the third group, we injected the rats with vitamin C (100 mg/kg) for a week, followed by 1 injection of homocysteine. The hippocampi were stained with an anti-TNF-α antibody, and apoptosis was evaluated using the TUNEL staining method. The homocysteine-injected rats had strong TNF-α expression in every hippocampal region. Vitamin C significantly reduced TNF-α expression in the hippocampus's CA1 region. Acute homocysteine administration did not cause apoptosis in the hippocampus. The pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α may mediate elevated homocysteine levels' contributions to inflammatory reactions, and vitamin C has some protective effect on inflammatory reactions in the CA1 hippocampal region.03/2011; 1(1):6-12. DOI:10.14581/jer.11002
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ABSTRACT: Although homocysteine (Hcy) has been widely implicated in the etiology of various physical health impairments, especially cardiovascular diseases, overwhelming evidence indicates that Hcy is also involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and affective disorders. There are several mechanisms linking Hcy to biological underpinnings of psychiatric disorders. It has been found that Hcy interacts with NMDA receptors, initiates oxidative stress, induces apoptosis, triggers mitochondrial dysfunction and leads to vascular damage. Elevated Hcy levels might also contribute to cognitive impairment that is widely observed among patients with affective disorders and schizophrenia. Supplementation of vitamins B and folic acid has been proved to be effective in lowering Hcy levels. There are also studies showing that this supplementation strategy might be beneficial for schizophrenia patients with respect to alleviating negative symptoms. However, there are no studies addressing the influence of add-on therapies with folate and vitamins B on cognitive performance of patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders. In this article, we provide an overview of Hcy metabolism in psychiatric disorders focusing on cognitive correlates and indicating future directions and perspectives.Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 09/2014; DOI:10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00343 · 4.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is known that elevated serum homocysteine, decreased folate, and low vitamin B12 serum levels are associated with poor cognitive function, cognitive decline, and dementia. Current literature shows that some psychiatric disorders, mainly affective and psychotic ones, can be related to the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine. These results can be explained by the importance of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine in carbon transfer metabolism (methylation), which is required for the production of serotonin as well as for other monoamine neurotransmitters and catecholamines. Earlier studies focused on the relationship between folate deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and depressive disorders. Although depressive and anxiety disorders show a common comorbidity pattern, there are few studies addressing the effect of impaired one-carbon metabolism in anxiety disorders - especially in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study aimed to measure the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine specifically in order to see if eventual alterations have an etiopathogenetic significance on patients with OCD. Serum vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine concentrations were measured in 35 patients with OCD and 22 controls. In addition, the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety were conducted for each patient. It was found that vitamin B12 levels were decreased and homocysteine levels were increased in some OCD patients. Homocysteine levels were positively correlated with Yale-Brown compulsion and Yale-Brown total scores. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that some OCD patients might have vitamin B12 deficiency and higher homocysteine levels.Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 09/2014; 10:1671-5. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S67668 · 2.00 Impact Factor