Elevated serum homocysteine levels in male patients with PTSD

Depression and Anxiety (Impact Factor: 4.41). 11/2008; 25(11):E154 - E157. DOI: 10.1002/da.20400


It has been suggested that an elevated serum or plasma homocysteine level may be a risk factor for neuropsychiatric conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and depression. Because depression is closely related to anxiety disorders, and because it has been suggested that stress may be associated with an elevated homocysteine level, we studied whether serum homocysteine levels are elevated in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Total serum homocysteine levels in 28 male patients with PTSD were compared to those of 223 healthy controls. The effect of PTSD on the serum homocysteine level was significant (F=42.96, P<.0001). In a regression model for the PTSD patients, the duration of PTSD was found to predict serum homocysteine levels (t=2.228, P=.035). Our results suggest that elevated levels of homocysteine in male patients with PTSD may be related to pathophysiological aspects associated with the chronicity of this disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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    • "Bjelland et al., 2003; Kale et al., 2010; Kim et al., 2008; Levine et al., 2002; Muntjewerff et al., 2006), only two studies in PTSD patients exits wherein homocysteine was measured as an indicator of one-carbon metabolism activity. Both studies found higher homocysteine concentrations in male PTSD patients compared to healthy or trauma-exposed controls (Jendricko et al., 2009; Levine et al., 2008). However, in our opinion the available information on the Fig. 1. "
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    ABSTRACT: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality through somatic conditions, particularly cardiovascular disease. The one-carbon metabolism in connection with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis may be an important mediator of this increased cardiovascular risk. In a mixed-gender sample of 49 PTSD patients and 45 healthy controls we therefore investigated: (1) alterations in the one-carbon metabolism as reflected in fasting plasma concentrations of homocysteine, folate, vitamins B6 and B12, and (2) associations of these one-carbon metabolites with the HPA-axis hormones cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEA-S). After correction for confounders, PTSD patients had significantly elevated homocysteine (z=2.963, p=.003) compared to controls, but normal levels of folate, vitamin B6 and B12. Comorbid depression did not explain the observed higher homocysteine levels. Patients showed increased risk for moderate hyperhomocysteinemia (OR=7.0, χ(2)=7.436, p=.006). Additionally, homocysteine was associated with PTSD severity (z=2.281, p=.005). Moreover, all HPA-axis hormones were associated with folate in both patients and controls (all p's≤.011), while DHEA-S influenced folate in patients (z=2.089, p=.037). Our clinical sample is relatively small and therefore small-sized effects may have remained undetected. Our study indicates that: (1) the one-carbon metabolism is altered in PTSD patients, (2) earlier findings of higher homocysteine in male PTSD patients are generalized to female patients, (3) homocysteine is negatively associated with PTSD severity, and (4) HPA-axis alterations are associated with the one-carbon metabolism. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether elevated homocysteine levels reflect preexisting risk factors and/or consequences of psychological trauma. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 06/2015; 184:277-285. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.05.062 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    • "To date, there are two studies showing the relationship between PTSD and elevated Hcy levels [31] [32]. However, we failed to find the association between childhood adversities and Hcy levels in FES patients. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: It has repeatedly been found that early life traumatic events may contribute to metabolic dysregulation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between the history of childhood trauma and cardiovascular risk factors in first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients. Method: The history of childhood trauma was assessed using the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report – Short Form (ETISR-SF) in 83 FES patients. Based on the ETISR-SF, patients were divided into those with positive and negative history of childhood trauma – FES(+) and FES(−) patients. Serum levels of fasting glucose lipids, homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate, as well as anthropometric parameters, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured. Results: The history of childhood trauma was associated with higher LDL levels, SBP and DBP after co-varying for age, gender, BMI, education and chlorpromazine equivalent. There were significant correlations between scores of distinct ETISR-SF subscales and LDL, HDL, SBP, DBP and the number of metabolic syndrome criteria. Conclusions: Results of this study indicate that traumatic events during childhood might be related to higher resting blood pressure and higher LDL levels in adult FES patients.
    General Hospital Psychiatry 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2015.03.017 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    • "Vitamin B12 deficiency was defined as a level of serum vitamin B12 <200 pg/mL.16 Hyperhomocysteinemia was defined as a level of plasma homocysteine >14.0 μmol/L.17 "
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    ABSTRACT: It is known that elevated serum homocysteine, decreased folate, and low vitamin B12 serum levels are associated with poor cognitive function, cognitive decline, and dementia. Current literature shows that some psychiatric disorders, mainly affective and psychotic ones, can be related to the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine. These results can be explained by the importance of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine in carbon transfer metabolism (methylation), which is required for the production of serotonin as well as for other monoamine neurotransmitters and catecholamines. Earlier studies focused on the relationship between folate deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and depressive disorders. Although depressive and anxiety disorders show a common comorbidity pattern, there are few studies addressing the effect of impaired one-carbon metabolism in anxiety disorders - especially in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study aimed to measure the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine specifically in order to see if eventual alterations have an etiopathogenetic significance on patients with OCD. Serum vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine concentrations were measured in 35 patients with OCD and 22 controls. In addition, the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety were conducted for each patient. It was found that vitamin B12 levels were decreased and homocysteine levels were increased in some OCD patients. Homocysteine levels were positively correlated with Yale-Brown compulsion and Yale-Brown total scores. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that some OCD patients might have vitamin B12 deficiency and higher homocysteine levels.
    Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 09/2014; 10:1671-5. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S67668 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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