Down‐regulation of the T cell receptor CD3ζ chain in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its influence on T cell responsiveness
ABSTRACT T cells implicated in chronic inflammatory diseases such as RA respond weakly when stimulated in vitro with mitogen or antigen. The mechanism behind this hyporesponsiveness is unclear, but a depressed expression of the T cell receptor (TCR)-associated CD3ζ chain has been suggested. In the present work we describe a low expression of CD3ζ in synovial fluid (SF) T cells from RA patients compared with peripheral blood (PB) T cells, but no difference in CD3ζ expression between RA and healthy control PB T cells. In vitro studies demonstrated that granulocytes but not SF macrophages are able to down-regulate the expression of CD3ζ. Through stimulation with anti-CD3 antibodies we demonstrated that the TCR-dependent proliferative response was decreased in SF T cells compared with PB T cells. Stimulation with phorbol ester and ionomycin also resulted in a low proliferative response of SF T cells, indicating that both signal transduction through the TCR (stimulation with anti-CD3) and events further downstream in the signalling pathways (stimulation with phorbol ester and ionomycin) are affected. A similar depression of T cell activity was observed when induction of IL-2 and IL-4 was measured. However, SF T cells were not defective in the induction of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) when stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)/ionomycin, in contrast to the diminished IFN-γ response observed after stimulation with anti-CD3. This indicates that the hyporesponsiveness of SF T cells can not be generalized to all T cell functions. The differential response to external stimuli is likely to be of importance for the capacity of SF T cells to influence inflammatory reactions.
Article: Evidence that anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy with both etanercept and infliximab induces apoptosis in macrophages, but not lymphocytes, in rheumatoid arthritis joints: extended report.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists is highly effective, but their mechanisms of action are not completely clear. Since anti-TNF therapy induces a decrease in synovial cellularity, this study focused on the modulation of RA synovial apoptosis following treatment with either soluble TNF receptor (etanercept) or TNF chimeric monoclonal antibody (infliximab). Apoptosis (TUNEL and active caspase 3 staining) and cell surface markers were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in synovial biopsy samples obtained before and after 8 weeks of treatment with etanercept (12 patients) or infliximab (9 patients). We also determined by flow cytometry the in vitro effect of etanercept and infliximab on apoptosis of RA mononuclear cells derived from the synovial fluid (SF) and peripheral blood (PB). Eight weeks of treatment with etanercept and with infliximab significantly increased synovial apoptosis. This change was accompanied by a significant decrease in the synovial monocyte/macrophage population. The decrease in lymphocyte numbers did not reach statistical significance. In vitro, 24 hours of incubation with either etanercept or infliximab induced apoptosis of the SF monocyte/macrophage population. PB monocyte/macrophages were less susceptible to anti-TNF-mediated apoptosis. No changes in the rate of apoptosis were observed in the lymphocyte population derived from either SF or PB. In RA patients, both etanercept and infliximab are able to induce cell type-specific apoptosis in the monocyte/macrophage population. This suggests a potential pathway that would account for the diminished synovial inflammation and the decreased numbers of synovial macrophages evident after TNF blockade.Arthritis & Rheumatism 02/2005; 52(1):61-72. · 7.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Induction of tumor-specific immunity is an attractive approach to cancer therapy, however to date every major pivotal trial has resulted in failure. While the phenomena of tumor-mediated immune suppression has been known for decades, only recently have specific molecular pathways been elucidated, and for the first time, rationale means of intervening and observing results of intervention have been developed. In this review we describe major advances in our understanding of tumor escape from immunological pressure and provide some possible therapeutic scenarios for enhancement of efficacy in future cancer vaccine trials.Cellular Immunology 01/2010; 263(2):138-47. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The strong association between specific alleles encoded within the MHC class II region and the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has provided the best evidence to date that CD4+ T cells play a role in the pathogenesis of this chronic inflammatory disease. However, the unusual phenotype of synovial T cells, including their profound proliferative hyporesponsiveness to TCR ligation, has challenged the notion that T-cell effector responses are driven by cognate cartilage antigens in inflamed synovial joints. The hierarchy of T-cell dysfunction from peripheral blood to inflamed joint suggests that these defects are acquired through prolonged exposure to proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. Indeed, there are now compelling data to suggest that chronic cytokine activation may contribute substantially to the phenotype and effector function of synovial T cells. Studies reveal that chronic exposure of T cells to TNF uncouples TCR signal transduction pathways by impairing the assembly and stability of the TCR/CD3 complex at the cell surface. Despite this membrane-proximal effect, TNF selectively uncouples downstream signalling pathways, as is shown by the dramatic suppression of calcium signalling responses, while Ras/ERK activation is spared. On the basis of these data, it is proposed that T-cell survival and effector responses are driven by antigen-independent, cytokine-dependent mechanisms, and that therapeutic strategies that seek to restore T-cell homeostasis rather than further depress T-cell function should be explored in the future.Arthritis Research 02/2002; 4 Suppl 3:S197-211.