Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Left Atrial Tachycardia Originating Within the Pulmonary Vein in a Patient with Dextrocardia
ABSTRACT A case is presented of a 38-year-old male with dextrocardia in whom radiofrequency current ablation of an incessant atrial tachycardia originating within the infero-lateral pulmonary vein was achieved. Activation mapping with detection of the earliest atrial activation was used for identification of the arrhythmogenic focus. In addition to fluoroscopy, trans- esophageal echocardiography was used for catheter guidance during the transseptal puncture. The present experience suggests that location of an arrhythmogenic focus within the pulmonary venous system should be considered whenever early atrial activation during ectopic atrial tachycardia is recorded at the junction between thfi left atrium and the pulmonary veins.
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ABSTRACT: Ectopic atrial tachycardia (EAT) is a reversible cause of cardiomyopathy but may be quite difficult to control with conventional therapy. Transcatheter ablation with radiofrequency current was tested as an alternative to medical or surgical treatment of this condition. Twelve young patients (aged 10 months to 19 years) with drug-resistant EAT were treated with direct transcatheter ablation of the ectopic focus using radiofrequency (RF) energy. All had depressed left ventricular contractility by echocardiographic criteria, involving shortening fractions of 10-26% (median, 20%; normal, 28-35%). The EAT was mapped to the left atrium in seven cases and to the right atrium in five. Local atrial activation at the ectopic site preceded the onset of the surface P wave by 20-60 msec (median, 42 msec). Tachycardia terminated 0.5-13.0 seconds (median, 2.0 seconds) into a successful RF application. The ablation effectively eliminated EAT in 11 of 12 patients (92%), all of whom were discharged in sinus rhythm without medications after a median hospital stay of 48 hours. Ablation was unsuccessful in one patient with diffuse dysplasia of the anterior right atrium, who eventually did well after surgical resection of abnormal atrial tissue. Transient depression of sinus node function was noted in one patient who had successful ablation of an EAT focus in close proximity to the sinus node, although normal sinus node function returned within 72 hours. No other complications were encountered. During follow-up (3-21 months; median, 13 months), one patient had recurrence of a slower and less-sustained EAT that was successfully eliminated at a second ablation session. All others remained in sinus rhythm, and all 12 subjects recovered normal ventricular function. RF ablation appears to be a safe and effective therapeutic option for drug-resistant ectopic atrial tachycardia and may be the preferred first-line therapy for those patients with depressed ventricular function.Circulation 11/1992; 86(4):1138-46. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Elucidation of the mechanisms of cardiac conduction disturbances leading to reentry will require resolution of the details of multidimensional propagation at a microscopic size scale (less than 200 micron). In practice, this will necessitate the combined analysis of extracellular and transmembrane action potentials. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the relationships between the time derivatives of the extracellular waveforms and the underlying action potentials in the experimental analysis of anisotropic propagation at this small size scale, and apply these relationships to human atrial muscle at different ages. The extracellular waveforms and their derivatives changed from a smooth contour during transverse propagation in young preparations to complex polyphasic waveforms in the older preparations. The major problem was to estimate the size and location of small groups of fibers that generated the complex waveforms in the older preparations. We found dissimilarities in the derivatives that distinguished source (bundle) size from the distance of the source to the measurement site. The differences in the extracellular waveforms and their derivatives indicated that there was electrical uncoupling of the side-to-side connections between small groups of fibers with aging. These changes produced a prominent zigzag course of transverse propagation at a microscopic level which, in turn, accounted for the increased complexity of the waveforms. The waveform differences also correlated with the development of extensive collagenous septa that separated small groups of fibers. The electrophysiological consequence was an age-related decrease in the "effective" transverse conduction velocities to the range of the very slow conduction (less than 0.08 m/sec) which makes it possible for reentry to occur in small regions of cardiac muscle with normal cellular electrophysiological properties.Circulation Research 04/1986; 58(3):356-71. · 11.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Automatic atrial tachycardia (AAT) is often refractory to medical management. While surgical ablation and isolation procedures such as atrioventricular node ablation have been useful in the management of AAT, important limitations remain. Reported experience with catheter ablation of AAT is limited. This report describes the successful application of transvenous radiofrequency catheter ablation in an adult with AAT. Potential limitations of catheter ablation in the management of AAT are discussed.Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 04/1992; 15(3):281-7. · 1.75 Impact Factor