Comparison of Normal Sinus Rhythm and Pacing Rate in Children with Minute Ventilation Single Chamber Rate Adaptive Permanent Pacemakers
ABSTRACT Rate adaptive pacemakers are used to achieve a better cardiac performance during exercise by increasing the heart rate and cardiac output. The ideal rate adaptive sensor should be able to mimic sinus node modulation under various degrees of exercise and other metabolic needs. Minute ventilation sensing has proven to be one of the most accurate sensor systems. In this study, alterations in sinus rhythm and pacing rates during daily life conditions in 11 children (median age 11 years, range 6–14 years) with minute ventilation single chamber pacemakers were investigated. Correlation of sinus rhythm with pacing rates was assessed. ECG records were obtained from 24–hour Holter monitoring. Average rates of five consecutive P waves and pace waves were determined every half hour. The average of the two values was then used to determine hourly rates. Correlation coefficients between the sinus rhythm and pacing rates were calculated. In nine patients, pacing rates correlated well to sinus rhythm (range 0.6793–0.9558. P < 0.001 and P < 0.05), whereas in two cases correlation was not sufficient (P > 0.05). Most of the patients, in whom rate response factor (RRF) measurements during peak exercise by treadmill with cnronotropic assessment exercise protocol were performed and pacemakers were programmed to these parameters, had more appropriate ventricular rates compared to spontaneous sinus rates. In these patients mean RRF value was 15.3 ± 2.7 (range 12–20, median 15). This study shows that during daily activities minute ventilation rate adaptive pacemakers can achieve pacing rates well correlated to sinus rhythm that reflects the physiological heart rate in children.
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ABSTRACT: The heart rate response of 59 patients aged 17-79 years implanted with seven different types of rate responsive pacemakers was evaluated during graded exercise treadmill testing and during standardised daily activities. The heart rate response in patients with pacemakers was compared with the chronotropic response in 20 healthy controls of similar age and sex distribution who performed identical protocols. All pacemaker types adequately simulated the control heart rate response during the graded exercise treadmill test except during the early stages of exercise. However, during everyday activities, the response of ventricular rate responsive (VVIR) pacemakers was varied. Activity sensing systems rapidly overresponded to staircase descent, to changes in walking speed, and to suitcase lifting with the pacemaker arm, and these systems did not respond to mental stress. "Physiological" sensors (QT and minute ventilation units) responded slowly to rapid changes in physiological demand. The QT pacemaker patients did respond to mental stress but showed a paradoxical increase in rate during the recovery phases of burst exercise protocols such as staircase ascent/descent and walking deceleration. Dual chamber pacemakers in VDD, DDD, and DDDR modes most closely simulated the normal chronotropic response during everyday activities. Graded exercise treadmill testing, in isolation, may not be the best way to asses or program the heart rate response in patients with the heart rate adaptive pacemakers because changes in heart rate during everyday activities may deviate considerably from the normal sinus response despite satisfactory simulation of the normal chronotropic response during treadmill testing.Heart 08/1990; 64(1):25-31.
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ABSTRACT: Single chamber cardiac pacemakers capable of automatically adjusting the rate according to body requirements have become an important means of physiologic pacing in patients with bradycardias. Such pacemakers are dependent on a nonatrial sensor of physiologic needs to optimize the rate response. Fifty rate-adaptive right ventricular pacemakers were implanted in 46 patients with a mean age of 60 +/- 4 years (mean +/- standard error of the mean). There were 2 types of activity-sensing pacemakers (Activitrax and Sensolog 702), the QT-sensing pacemakers (TX2 and Quintech), 2 types of respiratory-sensing pacemakers (Biorate [RDP3 and MB1] and Meta) and a rate-adaptive pacemaker that senses right ventricular dP/dt (Deltatrax). The rate responses of a group of 9 volunteers of similar age (62 +/- 2 years) were also included for comparison. Improvement in exercise duration in the rate-adaptive mode compared to the constant-rate ventricular pacing (VVI) mode was achieved during randomized symptom-limited treadmill exercise (from 26 to 49%). Compared with the sinus responses, the activity-sensing pacemakers responded most appropriately in speed. However, their rate responses were not related to workload and had lower correlations with estimated oxygen consumption (r = 0.7 and 0.47 for Activitrax and Sensolog, respectively). Respiratory-sensing pacemakers responded more appropriately in magnitude (r greater than 0.8) although their rate responses were slower. All pacemakers studied either showed no response or a reverse-rate response to the Valsalva maneuver. It is concluded that the currently available rate-adaptive ventricular pacemakers improve exercise performance compared with VVI pacemakers in patients with bradycardias.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)The American Journal of Cardiology 05/1989; 63(12):833-8. · 3.21 Impact Factor