Computation of Likelihood Ratios in Fingerprint Identification for Configurations of Any Number of Minutiæ
ABSTRACT Recent court challenges have highlighted the need for statistical research on fingerprint identification. This paper proposes a model for computing likelihood ratios (LRs) to assess the evidential value of comparisons with any number of minutiæ. The model considers minutiae type, direction and relative spatial relationships. It expands on previous work on three minutiae by adopting a spatial modeling using radial triangulation and a probabilistic distortion model for assessing the numerator of the LR. The model has been tested on a sample of 686 ulnar loops and 204 arches. Features vectors used for statistical analysis have been obtained following a preprocessing step based on Gabor filtering and image processing to extract minutiae data. The metric used to assess similarity between two feature vectors is based on an Euclidean distance measure. Tippett plots and rates of misleading evidence have been used as performance indicators of the model. The model has shown encouraging behavior with low rates of misleading evidence and a LR power of the model increasing significantly with the number of minutiæ. The LRs that it provides are highly indicative of identity of source on a significant proportion of cases, even when considering configurations with few minutiæ. In contrast with previous research, the model, in addition to minutia type and direction, incorporates spatial relationships of minutiæ without introducing probabilistic independence assumptions. The model also accounts for finger distortion.
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ABSTRACT: Latent print examiners use their expertise to determine whether the information present in a comparison of two fingerprints (or palmprints) is sufficient to conclude that the prints were from the same source (individualization). When fingerprint evidence is presented in court, it is the examiner's determination-not an objective metric-that is presented. This study was designed to ascertain the factors that explain examiners' determinations of sufficiency for individualization. Volunteer latent print examiners (n = 170) were each assigned 22 pairs of latent and exemplar prints for examination, and annotated features, correspondence of features, and clarity. The 320 image pairs were selected specifically to control clarity and quantity of features. The predominant factor differentiating annotations associated with individualization and inconclusive determinations is the count of corresponding minutiae; other factors such as clarity provided minimal additional discriminative value. Examiners' counts of corresponding minutiae were strongly associated with their own determinations; however, due to substantial variation of both annotations and determinations among examiners, one examiner's annotation and determination on a given comparison is a relatively weak predictor of whether another examiner would individualize. The extensive variability in annotations also means that we must treat any individual examiner's minutia counts as interpretations of the (unknowable) information content of the prints: saying "the prints had N corresponding minutiae marked" is not the same as "the prints had N corresponding minutiae." More consistency in annotations, which could be achieved through standardization and training, should lead to process improvements and provide greater transparency in casework.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e110179. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Friction ridge impression appearance can be affected due to the type of surface touched and pressure exerted during deposition. Understanding the magnitude of alterations, regions affected, and systematic/detectable changes occurring would provide useful information. Geometric morphometric techniques were used to statistically characterize these changes. One hundred and fourteen prints were obtained from a single volunteer and impressed with heavy, normal, and light pressure on computer paper, soft gloss paper, 10-print card stock, and retabs. Six hundred prints from 10 volunteers were rolled with heavy, normal, and light pressure on soft gloss paper and 10-print card stock. Results indicate that while different substrates/pressure levels produced small systematic changes in fingerprints, the changes were small in magnitude: roughly the width of one ridge. There were no detectable changes in the degree of random variability of prints associated with either pressure or substrate. In conclusion, the prints transferred reliably regardless of pressure or substrateJournal of Forensic Sciences 05/2014; · 1.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Latent prints are routinely recovered from crime scenes and are compared with available databases of known fingerprints for identifying criminals. However, current procedures to compare latent prints to large databases of exemplar (rolled or plain) prints are prone to errors. This suggests caution in making conclusions about a suspect's identity based on a latent fingerprint comparison. A number of attempts have been made to statistically model the utility of a fingerprint comparison in making a correct accept/reject decision or its evidential value. These approaches, however, either make unrealistic assumptions about the model or they lack simple interpretation. We argue that the posterior probability of two fingerprints belonging to different fingers given their match score, referred to as the nonmatch probability (NMP), effectively captures any implicating evidence of the comparison. NMP is computed using state-of-the-art matchers and is easy to interpret. To incorporate the effect of image quality, number of minutiae, and size of the latent on NMP value, we compute the NMP vs. match score plots separately for image pairs (latent and exemplar prints) with different characteristics. Given the paucity of latent fingerprint databases in public domain, we simulate latent prints using two exemplar print databases (NIST SD-14 and Michigan State Police) by cropping regions of three different sizes. We appropriately validate this simulation using four latent databases (NIST SD-27 and three proprietary latent databases) and two state-of-the-art fingerprint matchers to compute their respective match scores. We also discuss a practical scenario where a latent examiner uses the proposed framework to compute the evidential value of a latent-exemplar print pair comparison.IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security 12/2012; 7(6):1752-1765. · 2.07 Impact Factor