[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a viral oncogene and it is essential for the transformation of resting B cells by the virus. The protein acts as a ligand-less membrane receptor and triggers numerous cellular signaling pathways. Cellular transformation frequently has been associated with genomic instability. To investigate whether EBV LMP1 induces chromosomal aberrations, micronucleus (MN) formation was examined in LMP1-expressing epithelial cells. The expression of wild-type LMP1 enhanced both spontaneous and bleomycin-induced MN formation. MN formation may be induced by inactivation of DNA repair and, therefore, we investigated the effect of LMP1 on DNA repair, using a host cell reactivation (HCR) assay. In the HCR assay, LMP1 reduced the capacity for DNA repair of both NPC-TW01 (p53-wild-type) and H1299 (p53-deficient) cells. As reduction of DNA repair by LMP1 occurs in p53-wild-type and p53-deficient cells, it seems that LMP1 can repress DNA repair in a p53-independent manner. Inactivation of DNA repair may render cells sensitive to DNA-damaging agents. In this study, H1299 cells harboring LMP1 were shown to be more sensitive to UV and bleomycin than those with a vector control. Using various deletion mutants of EBV LMP1 to determine the regions of LMP1 required to enhance MN formation, inhibit DNA repair and sensitize cells to DNA-damaging agents, we found that the region a. a. 189-222 (located within the CTAR1 domain) was responsible for sensitizing cells to UV and bleomycin, as well as for enhancing MN formation and repressing DNA repair. Based on these results, we suggest that disruption of DNA repair by LMP-1 results in an accumulation of unrepaired DNA and consequent genomic instability, which may contribute to the oncogenesis of LMP1 in human epithelial cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BGLF4 is the only serine/threonine protein kinase identified in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); it is known to phosphorylate viral DNA polymerase processivity factor, EA-D (BMRF1), EBNA-LP, EBNA-2, cellular EF-1delta and nucleoside analogue ganciclovir. However, the expression and biological functions of BGLF4 have not yet been clearly demonstrated in EBV-infected cells. To reveal authentic functions of BGLF4 protein within viral-replicating cells, a panel of specific monoclonal antibodies was generated and characterized. The major immunogenic regions of BGLF4 were mapped to aa 27-70 and 327-429. Using these antibodies, the expression kinetics and localization of BGLF4 were analysed in reactivated EBV-positive lymphoid and epithelial cells. BGLF4 was expressed as a phosphoprotein at the early lytic stage and was detected predominantly in the nucleus of EBV-positive cells, but small amounts of BGLF4 were observed in cytosolic and heavy membrane fractions at the late phase of virus replication. Additionally, it was demonstrated that BGLF4 co-localizes with viral DNA polymerase processivity factor, EA-D (BMRF1), in the virus replication compartment and that it is a virion component. Finally, possible functional domains at the N terminus of BGLF4 were analysed and it was found that aa 1-26 of BGLF4 are dispensable for EA-D phosphorylation, whereas deletion of aa 27-70 reduced kinase activity.
Journal of General Virology 01/2006; 86(Pt 12):3215-25. DOI:10.1099/vir.0.81313-0 · 3.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellular mismatch and base-excision repair machineries have been shown to be involved in Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) lytic DNA replication. We report here that nucleotide-excision repair (NER) may also play an important role in EBV lytic DNA replication. Firstly, the EBV BGLF4 kinase interacts with xeroderma pigmentosum C (XPC), the critical DNA damage-recognition factor of NER, in yeast and in vitro, as demonstrated by yeast two-hybrid and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays. Simultaneously, XPC was shown, by indirect immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation assays, to interact and colocalize with BGLF4 in EBV-positive NA cells undergoing lytic viral replication. In addition, the efficiency of EBV DNA replication was reduced about 30-40 % by an XPC small interfering RNA. Expression of BGLF4 enhances cellular DNA-repair activity in p53-defective H1299/bcl2 cells in a host-cell reactivation assay. This enhancement was not observed in the XPC-mutant cell line XP4PA-SV unless complemented by ectopic XPC, suggesting that BGLF4 may stimulate DNA repair in an XPC-dependent manner. Overall, we suggest that the interaction of BGLF4 and XPC may be involved in DNA replication and repair and thereby enhance the efficiency of viral DNA replication.
Journal of General Virology 01/2008; 88(Pt 12):3234-43. DOI:10.1099/vir.0.83212-0 · 3.18 Impact Factor
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