Differential signalling of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 by stromal cell‐derived factor 1 and the HIV glycoprotein in rat neurons and astrocytes
ABSTRACT CXCR4 is the Gi protein-linked seven-transmembrane receptor for the alpha chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), a chemoattractant for lymphocytes. This receptor is highly conserved between human and rodent. CXCR4 is also a coreceptor for entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in T cells and is expressed in the CNS. To investigate how these CXCR4 ligands influence CNS development and/or function, we have examined the expression and signalling of this chemokine receptor in rat neurons and astrocytes in vitro. CXCR4 transcripts and protein are synthesized by both cell types and in E15 brain neuronal progenitors. In these progenitors, SDF-1, but not gp120 (the HIV glycoprotein), induced activation of extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERKs) 1/2 and a dose-dependent chemotactic response. This chemotaxis was inhibited by Pertussis toxin, which uncouples Gi proteins and the bicyclam AMD3100, a highly selective CXCR4 antagonist, as well as by an inhibitor of the MAP kinase pathway. In differentiated neurons, both SDF-1 and the glycoprotein of HIV, gp120, triggered activation of ERKs with similar kinetics. These effects were significantly inhibited by Pertussis toxin and the CXCR4 antagonist. Rat astrocytes also responded to SDF-1 signalling by phosphorylation of ERKs but, in contrast to cortical neurons, no kinase activation was induced by gp120. Thus neurons and astrocytes can respond differently to signalling by SDF-1 and/or gp120. As SDF-1 triggers directed migration of neuronal progenitors, this alpha chemokine may play a role in cortex development. In differentiated neurons, both natural and viral ligands of CXCR4 activate ERKs and may therefore influence neuronal function.
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ABSTRACT: CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling has been reported to regulate three essential processes for the establishment of neural networks in different neuronal systems: neuronal migration, cell positioning and axon wiring. However, it is not known whether it regulates the development of A9-A10 tyrosine hydroxylase positive (TH(+)) midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons. We report here that Cxcl12 is expressed in the meninges surrounding the ventral midbrain (VM), whereas CXCR4 is present in NURR1(+) mDA precursors and mDA neurons from E10.5 to E14.5. CXCR4 is activated in NURR1(+) cells as they migrate towards the meninges. Accordingly, VM meninges and CXCL12 promoted migration and neuritogenesis of TH(+) cells in VM explants in a CXCR4-dependent manner. Moreover, in vivo electroporation of Cxcl12 at E12.5 in the basal plate resulted in lateral migration, whereas expression in the midline resulted in retention of TH(+) cells in the IZ close to the midline. Analysis of Cxcr4(-/-) mice revealed the presence of VM TH(+) cells with disoriented processes in the intermediate zone (IZ) at E11.5 and marginal zone (MZ) at E14. Consistently, pharmacological blockade of CXCR4 or genetic deletion of Cxcr4 resulted in an accumulation of TH(+) cells in the lateral aspect of the IZ at E14, indicating that CXCR4 is required for the radial migration of mDA neurons in vivo. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that CXCL12/CXCR4 regulates the migration and orientation of processes in A9-A10 mDA neurons.Development 10/2013; · 6.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Stromal cell-Derived Factor-1 (SDF-1α), binds to the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled CXCR4 receptor and modulates cell migration, differentiation, and proliferation. CXCR4 has been reported to be expressed in various tissues including brain. Moreover, CXCR4 has recently been shown to be one of the coreceptors for HIV-1 infection which could be implicated in HIV encephalitis. In the present study, the binding properties and autoradiographic distribution of [125I]SDF-1α binding to CXCR4 were characterized in the adult rat brain. SDF-1α binding and CXCR4 coupling system were also studied in human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH. The binding of [125I]SDF-1α on rat brain sections was specific, time-dependent and reversible. The highest densities of CXCR4 were detected in the choroid plexus of the lateral and the dorsal third ventricle. Lower densities of [125I]SDF-1α binding sites were observed in various brain regions including cerebral cortex, anterior olfactory nuclei, hippocampal formation, thalamic nuclei, blood vessels and pituitary gland. In the choroid plexus, the IC50 and Kd of [125I]SDF-1α binding were respectively 0.6 nM and 0.36 nM. Similar IC50 values were obtained in other brain structures. A CXCR4 antagonist, bicyclam, competed with SDF-1α binding (30% inhibition at 10−6 M). In SK-N-SH cells, [125I]SDF-1α bound to CXCR4 with a Kd of 5.0 nM and a maximal binding capacity of 460 fmol/mg of protein. SDF-1α induced a rapid and transient intracellular calcium increase in SK-N-SH cells. These findings suggest that CXCR4 is highly expressed in some brain structures and have a regulatory role in the nervous system. The significance of this expression in the brain parenchyma and more specifically in the choroid plexus remains to be clarified in the normal as well as in the infected brain.Journal of Neuroimmunology 10/2000; 110(1):151-160. · 2.79 Impact Factor