Cytomorphology of gastric and duodenal epithelium and reactivity to B72.3: A baseline for comparison to pancreatic lesions aspirated by EUS‐FNAB
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United StatesDiagnostic Cytopathology (Impact Factor: 1.12). 12/2004; 33(6):381 - 386. DOI: 10.1002/dc.20343
Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNAB) has become a widely used method of pre-operatively evaluating pancreatic masses. This technique introduces gastrointestinal contamination into the specimen, which poses a diagnostic pitfall. The cytomorphologic features of these contaminants have not been fully characterized. The current study was designed to systematically document the cytomorphology of gastric and duodenal epithelium on fixed and air-dried smears, as well as ThinPrep® (TP) preparations, and to assess the reactivity of the epithelial cells to the tumor marker B72.3 so as to establish a baseline for future comparative studies with EUS-FNAB of the pancreas. Air-dried and fixed smears and TP specimens were obtained using a cytobrush from gastric (GM) and duodenal (DM) mucosa from 14 Whipple specimens. Cytologic features of cell architecture, cellular features and smear background were analysed. Immunocytochemical staining with B72.3 was performed in 10/14 cases. Mucin was present in all preparations except one case from the duodenum. It was consistently present as isolated thick to thin clumps but never as diffuse ‘colloid–type’ mucin; it was most prominent on air-dried smears, and most abundant from the GM. Epithelial cells were admixed with mucin, but degenerated cells and inflammation were not present within the mucin. Mucin on TP appeared as fragmented wisps of pale blue staining material. Background inflammation and debris were not significant findings. The epithelial cells were arranged in large and small monolayered sheets. Smaller groups were more common from GM on smears and more abundant on TP than smears. Luminal edges (DM>GM) were a prominent feature, with a brush border noted in DM. The nuclei of GM and DM were round, evenly spaced and without atypia, and dense, non-vacuolated cytoplasm was the rule, with the exception of goblet cells and occasional gastric foveolar cells noted in one case. In both GM and DM, B72.3 stained goblet cells with a strong, coarsely granular pattern and stained epithelial cells focally in a finely granular, punctate, perinuclear distribution; mucin also stained strongly in all cases. These baseline characteristics provide a template for assessing mucin and epithelial GM and DM contamination on pancreatic EUS-FNAB specimens. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2005;33:381–386. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: Characterization of the fluid flow properties of fractures is of particular interest because fractures rapidly transmit fluids, such as groundwater, contaminants and hydrocarbons. We investigate the use of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and hydraulic testing to characterize groundwater flow variability along two prominent horizontal fracture planes in a carbonate aquifer. Three-dimensional radar reflection surveying provided high-resolution imaging of the two horizontal fractures located below the water table. Radar reflector amplitude variation of up to one order of magnitude is observed along the fracture surfaces. Analytical computations of reflection coefficients and radar finite difference modeling of saturated-fracture centimeter-scale aperture variation are in agreement with the observed radar data amplitude variation. Thus, radar surveying identified centimeter-scale mechanical fracture aperture variation and mapped flow conduits and flow barriers in three dimensions. Hydraulic slug testing, conducted previously at the test site, provided hydraulic conductivity measurements for each of the two fractures at seven well locations within the area covered by the GPR data. The slug tests suggested sub-millimeter to millimeter scale hydraulic fracture apertures at the seven well locations. The apparent discrepancy of one order of magnitude of fracture aperture determinations (cm vs. mm scale) arises from the different properties measured by the two methods. GPR signal amplitude responds to the mechanical fracture aperture, i.e. the actual size and shape of the conduit. A slug test yields a one-dimensional point measurement of actual fluid-flow and assigns an average property value for the surrounding area. This study suggests that integration of GPR and hydraulic testing methods offers the potential for improved determination of the fluid-flow properties of fractured, anisotropic geologic formations.Ground Penetrating Radar, 2004. GPR 2004. Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on; 02/2004
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ABSTRACT: Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is an increasingly recognized cystic neoplasm of the pancreas, histologically classified by the degree of epithelial atypia and by the presence or absence of invasion of the cyst wall. To the authors' knowledge, the cytologic features of this neoplasm are poorly characterized, especially with respect to tumor grade. Thirty-three endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided pancreatic fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) samples and 1 pancreatic duct brush specimen from 25 patients with a histologically confirmed IPMN were retrospectively reviewed. Blinded to tumor grade, background mucin, inflammation, necrosis, overall cellularity, the presence of gastrointestinal-contaminating epithelium, architecture of cell clusters, and nuclear and cellular morphology were evaluated. In cases in which special stains for mucin were performed, the diagnostic utility of these stains was assessed. These cytologic features were subsequently correlated with the histologic diagnosis. The 34 cytology samples represented 4 adenomas, 15 IPMN-moderate dysplasias, 7 intraductal carcinomas, and 8 IPMNs with invasive carcinoma. Extracellular mucin was present in 97% of all cases; 53% had thick, viscous, "colloid-like" mucin. Special stains for mucin were positive in 6 of 11 cases (54%), helping to identify thin mucin in only 2 cases. Gastrointestinal contamination did not appear to create diagnostic difficulty due to an apparent dual (dysplastic-nondysplastic) epithelial population, but only 4 adenomas were evaluated in this study. Necrosis distinguished IPMN with carcinoma from IPMN-adenomas and IPMN with moderate dysplasia (P < .00001), and was more often observed with invasion than IPMN-carcinoma in situ (P < .05). Tight epithelial cell clusters with hyperchromatic nuclei and a high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio was more significant in IPMN of at least moderate dysplasia (P = .03). Pale nuclei with parachromatin clearing was found to be a nuclear feature that was suspicious for at least carcinoma in situ (P < .001). In addition, significant background inflammation (neutrophils and histiocytes) was found to be more characteristic of IPMN with at least carcinoma in situ (P = .002). The presence of thick, "colloid-like" mucin is noted in half of the IPMN cases, but was not found to be specific to grade. The absence of such mucin does not exclude an IPMN. The presence of tight epithelial cell clusters is consistent with a neoplasm of at least moderate dysplasia, and abundant background inflammation and parachromatin clearing correlated with the presence of at least carcinoma in situ. Necrosis was the only feature found to be strongly suggestive of invasion.Cancer 06/2006; 108(3):163-73. DOI:10.1002/cncr.21838 · 4.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Distinguishing mucinous from nonmucinous cystic lesions of the pancreas often constitutes a diagnostic dilemma. The clinical management differs between such lesions; therefore it is important to make an accurate preoperative diagnosis. Various centers have reported conflicting results regarding their ability to detect mucin-producing neoplastic cells and appropriately reach a diagnosis based on endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided FNA. The aim of this study is to assess the ability of EUS-FNA cytology to diagnose and differentiate mucinous from nonmucinous pancreatic cystic lesions. We reviewed records of patients who underwent EUS of pancreatic cystic lesions. If FNA was performed and mucinous neoplasm was suspected, aspirate was evaluated for cytomorphology and presence of mucin. FNA results were compared to final histologic diagnosis if surgery was performed. Cytologic diagnosis was provided for 28/30 (93%). By comparing EUS-FNA diagnoses with final surgical pathology, FNA accurately diagnosed in 10/11 cases with sensitivity and specificity for detection of malignancy of 100 and 89, respectively, while the accuracy for identification of mucinous cystic neoplasms was 100%. Our results indicate that in the appropriate clinical and imaging setting, EUS-FNA cytology with analysis for mucin production by tumor cells is an important test in distinguishing pancreatic cystic lesions and guiding further management. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2007;35:18–25.Diagnostic Cytopathology 01/2007; 35(1):18-25. DOI:10.1002/dc.20558 · 1.12 Impact Factor
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