Detection of acute renal ischemia in swine using blood oxygen level‐dependent magnetic resonance imaging
ABSTRACT PurposeTo determine the feasibility and sensitivity of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect acute renal ischemia, using a swine model, and to present the causes of variability and assess techniques that minimize variability introduced during data analysis.Materials and MethodsBOLD MRI was performed in axial and coronal planes of the kidneys of five swine. Color R2* maps were calculated and mean R2* values and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the cortex and medulla were determined for baseline, renal artery occlusion and reperfusion conditions. Paired Student's t-tests were used to determine significance.ResultsMean R2* measurements increased from baseline during renal artery occlusion in the cortex (axial, 13.8–24.6 second−1; coronal, 14.4–24.7 second−1) and medulla (axial, 19.3–32.2 second−1; coronal, 20.1–30.7 second−1). These differences were significant for both the cortex (axial, P < 0.04; coronal, P < 0.005) and medulla (axial, P < 0.02; coronal, P < 0.0005). No significant change was observed in the contralateral kidney.ConclusionR2* values were significantly higher than baseline for medulla and cortex during renal artery occlusion. More variability exists in R2* measurements in the medulla than the cortex and in the axial than the coronal plane. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: Animal studies suggest that renal tissue hypoxia plays an important role in the development of renal damage in hypertension and renal diseases, yet human data were scarce due to the lack of noninvasive methods. Over the last decade, blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI), detecting deoxyhemoglobin in hypoxic renal tissue, has become a powerful tool to assess kidney oxygenation noninvasively in humans. This paper provides an overview of BOLD-MRI studies performed in patients suffering from essential hypertension or chronic kidney disease (CKD). In line with animal studies, acute changes in cortical and medullary oxygenation have been observed after the administration of medication (furosemide, blockers of the renin-angiotensin system) or alterations in sodium intake in these patient groups, underlining the important role of renal sodium handling in kidney oxygenation. In contrast, no BOLD-MRI studies have convincingly demonstrated that renal oxygenation is chronically reduced in essential hypertension or in CKD or chronically altered after long-term medication intake. More studies are required to clarify this discrepancy and to further unravel the role of renal oxygenation in the development and progression of essential hypertension and CKD in humans.02/2013; 2013:696598. DOI:10.1155/2013/696598
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ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium intake on renal tissue oxygenation in humans. To this purpose, we measured renal hemodynamics, renal sodium handling, and renal oxygenation in normotensive (NT) and hypertensive (HT) subjects after 1 week of a high-sodium and 1 week of a low-sodium diet. Renal oxygenation was measured using blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance. Tissue oxygenation was determined by the measurement of R2* maps on 4 coronal slices covering both kidneys. The mean R2* values in the medulla and cortex were calculated, with a low R2* indicating a high tissue oxygenation. Ten male NT (mean age: 26.5+/-7.4 years) and 8 matched HT subjects (mean age: 28.8+/-5.7 years) were studied. Cortical R2* was not different under the 2 conditions of salt intake. Medullary R2* was significantly lower under low sodium than high sodium in both NT and HT subjects (28.1+/-0.8 versus 31.3+/-0.6 s(-1); P<0.05 in NT; and 27.9+/-1.5 versus 30.3+/-0.8 s(-1); P<0.05, in HT), indicating higher medullary oxygenation under low-sodium conditions. In NT subjects, medullary oxygenation was positively correlated with proximal reabsorption of sodium and negatively with absolute distal sodium reabsorption, but not with renal plasma flow. In HT subjects, medullary oxygenation correlated with the 24-hour sodium excretion but not with proximal or with the distal handling of sodium. These data demonstrate that dietary sodium intake influences renal tissue oxygenation, low sodium intake leading to an increased renal medullary oxygenation both in normotensive and young hypertensive subjects.Hypertension 03/2010; 55(5):1116-22. DOI:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.109.149682 · 7.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI) has recently emerged as an important noninvasive technique to assess intrarenal oxygenation under physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions. Although this tool represents a major addition to our armamentarium of methodologies to investigate the role of hypoxia in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury and progressive chronic kidney disease, numerous technical limitations confound interpretation of data derived from this approach. BOLD MRI has been utilized to assess intrarenal oxygenation in numerous experimental models of kidney disease and in human subjects with diabetic and nondiabetic chronic kidney disease, acute kidney injury, renal allograft rejection, contrast-associated nephropathy, and obstructive uropathy. However, confidence in conclusions based on data derived from BOLD MRI measurements will require continuing advances and technical refinements in the use of this technique.International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease 01/2014; 7:421-435. DOI:10.2147/IJNRD.S42924