ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Bcl‐2 and Bax Expressions in Pre‐Term, Term and Post‐Term Placentas
ABSTRACT Problem Placental apoptosis-associated protein imbalance might contribute to the pathogenesis of pre- and post-term birth. Therefore, we evaluated the expression and distribution of pro-apoptotic (Bax) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) molecules in term, pre-term and post-term placentas.Method of study Placental samples were collected from women with term (n = 25), pre-term (n = 7) and post-term (n = 10) deliveries. The expression of Bcl-2 and Bax was assessed by immunochemistry on paraffin-embedded placental specimens.Results The pattern of immunostaining for Bcl-2 and Bax was the same in all samples, but not the intensity. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was higher in both pre-term and post-term placental samples compared with term placentas as a result of intense reactivity for the pro-apoptotic factor, Bax in pre-term and post-term placentas and, for Bcl-2 decrease in pre-term placentas.Conclusion These findings suggest that different unbalance mechanisms in placental apoptotic-associated protein expressions may be involved in the physiopathology of pre-term and post-term births.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: In this study, we assessed Bcl-2 and Bax gene expression patterns in human placental samples from intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) pregnancies using normal pregnancy as control. Methods: We compared Bcl-2 and Bax gene expression in placental samples from all IUGR pregnancies treated in our clinic between January 1, 2010- January 1, 2011 versus 140 normal pregnancy samples from the same study period. We also assessed clinical parameters such as maternal age, gestational weight gain, gestational BMI change, and maternal birth weight. Results: In IUGR, the Bcl-2 gene was underexpressed compared to normal pregnancy. There was no difference in the Bax gene activity in the two groups. The degree of growth restriction within the IUGR group did not correlate with Bcl-2 or Bax gene activity. Conclusions: Our study revealed that it is the reduced inhibitory activity of the Bcl-2 gene rather than an enhanced stimulatory activity of the Bax gene in the background of the increased apoptosis observed in IUGR. IUGR appears to be more common with maternal age around 20 years and above 35 years. Gestational weight gain and gestational BMI change also predict the risk for IUGR.The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine: the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians 10/2012; · 1.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pregnancy is thought to be a state of immunological tolerance. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still poorly understood. In our previous study, adenovirus mediated CTLA4Ig transgene (Ad-CTLA4Ig) therapy was demonstrated to improve pregnancy outcome in an abortion-prone mouse model by skewing the Th2/Th1 cytokine balance, expanding peripheral CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cell populations and inducing indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) mRNA expression at the maternal-fetal interface. However, it is still not clear whether other mechanisms are involved in the protective effect of CTLA-4 on pregnancy outcome in abortion-prone matings. In this study, we focused on the effect of CTLA4Ig on spleen lymphocyte proliferation and apoptosis at the maternal-fetal interface. We demonstrated that Ad-CTLA4Ig therapy inhibited the proliferation of CBA/J splenocytes and IL-2 secretion in response to DBA/2 stimulator cells in the abortion-prone mice model. Ad-CTLA4Ig therapy also skewed cytokine production toward a Th2 bias and regulated the expression of anti-apoptosis factor Bcl-2 and pro-apoptosis factor Bax at the maternal-fetal interface. However, it did not influence the apoptosis and cell cycles of splenocytes in pregnant CBA/J mice. On the whole, these findings indicated that Ad-CTLA4Ig therapy could ameliorate the outcome of spontaneous abortion by inhibiting proliferation of maternal spleen lymphocytes and regulating apoptosis in the feto-placental unit.Journal of Reproductive Immunology 02/2013; · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the apoptotic gene expression of placenta in an all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) induced fetus congenital clubfoot pregnant rat model. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided randomly into ATRA-exposed group and control group. On day 10 of pregnancy, a dose of 120 mg/kg ATRA dissolved in mineral oil was given intragastrically to the rats in the ATRA-exposed group and equivalent volume of mineral oil was given intragastrically to the control rats. Fetuses were delivered on day 20 of pregnancy, the placenta was collected for the pathological and biochemical analysis. Clubfoot-like deformity fetuses were observed in the ATRA-exposed group and none with deformity was found in the control group. The pro-apoptosis in placenta of ATRA-exposed group was measured by flow cytometry. Moreover, compared with the control group, lower expression of Bcl-2 and higher expression of BAX were found in the ATRA-exposed group in both mRNA and protein level. Immunohistochemical labeling of Bcl-2 in the control group was more intense while BAX labeling in the ATRA-exposed group was more intense. Additionally, the caspase-3 activity was also significantly increased in the ATRA-exposed group than control group. In our research, we found a pro-apoptosis in placenta in the ATRA-exposed pregnant rats, indicating a possible association between placental apoptosis and congenital clubfoot.International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 01/2014; 7(2):677-84. · 2.24 Impact Factor