The Comparative Efficacy of Drug Therapies Used for the Management of Corticosteroid‐Induced Osteoporosis: A Meta‐Regression

Clinical Epidemiology Research and Training Unit, Department of Medicine, Boston Medical Center and Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (Impact Factor: 6.04). 07/2002; 17(8):1512 - 1526. DOI: 10.1359/jbmr.2002.17.8.1512

ABSTRACT We determined the comparative efficacy of vitamin D, calcitonin, fluoride, and bisphosphonates for the management of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis using meta-regression models. A systematic search for trials was conducted using MEDLINE, bibliographic references, abstracts from national meetings, and contact with pharmaceutical companies and content experts. We included all randomized controlled trials, lasting at least 6 months, of adult patients on oral corticosteroids that evaluated treatment comparisons between vitamin D, calcitonin, bisphosphonates, or fluoride either with no therapy/calcium or with each other and that reported extractable results. The outcome measure of interest was change in lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD). We identified 45 eligible trials, which provided 49 eligible treatment comparisons (some trials had three arms or more). Our results indicated that bisphosphonates were the most effective class (effect size 1.03; 95% CI: 0.85, 1.17); results were similar even when newer generations of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates were excluded from analysis. We found the efficacy of bisphosphonates was enhanced further when used in combination with vitamin D (effect size, 1.31; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.50). Vitamin D and calcitonin were more effective than no therapy/calcium (effect size, 0.46; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.62; and effect size, 0.51; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.67, respectively) and were of similar efficacy, but both were significantly less effective than bisphosphonates. Fluoride appeared effective, but there were too few studies (n = 5) to draw robust conclusions regarding its efficacy compared with the other three therapies. In summary, bisphosphonates are the most effective of evaluated agents for managing corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. The efficacy of bisphosphonates is enhanced further with concomitant use of vitamin D.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids (GC) have potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects and are widely used in the management of rheumatoid arthritis in combination with other disease-modifying anti-rheumatoid drugs. Concern about the risk of adverse effects may be to some extent misplaced as low to moderate doses of GC have different mechanisms of action and risk profiles compared with high doses. This review discusses the current understanding about the different modes of action of GC, their strong disease-modifying properties and the efforts at improving the therapeutic ratio of GC through the development of new drugs which promise greater safety such as selective GC receptor agonists, liposomal GC and modified-release (MR) prednisone.
    Expert Review of Clinical Immunology 12/2013; · 3.34 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While bisphosphonates (BPs) are commonly used in clinical treatment for osteoporosis, their roles on osteoporosis treatment for rheumatic patients remain unclear. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of BPs on fractures prevention and bone mass preserving in rheumatic patients. We searched PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for relevant literatures with a time limit of Jan. 6, 2012. All randomized clinical trials of BPs for adult rheumatic patients with a follow-up of 6 months or more were included. We calculated relative risks (RRs) for fractures and weighted mean difference (WMD) for percent change of bone mineral density (BMD). Twenty trials were included for analysis. The RR in rheumatic patients treated with BPs was 0.61 (95%CI [0.44, 0.83], P = 0.002) for vertebral fractures, and 0.49 (95%CI [0.23, 1.02], P = 0.06) for non-vertebral fractures. The WMD of BMD change in the lumbar spine was 3.72% (95%CI [2.72, 4.72], P<0.001) at 6 months, 3.67% (95%CI [2.84, 4.50], P<0.001) at 12 months, 3.64% (95%CI [2.59, 4.69], P<0.001) at 24 months, and 5.87% (95%CI [4.59, 7.15], P<0.001) at 36 months in patients using BPs, as compared with those treated with calcium, vitamin D or calcitonin. In subgroup analyses, rheumatic patients using BPs for osteoporosis prevention had greater WMD than those using BPs for treating osteoporosis at 6 months (4.53% vs. 2.73%, P = 0.05) and 12 months (4.93% vs. 2.91%, P = 0.01). In both short-term and middle-term, BPs can preserve bone mass and reduce the incidence of vertebral fractures in rheumatic patients, mainly for those who have GC consumption. The efficacy of BPs is better when using BPs to prevent rather than to treat osteoporosis in rheumatic patients.
    PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e80890. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 6-C-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(2S,3S)-(+)-5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxydihydroflavonol (GTDF) is a novel compound isolated from Ulmus wallichiana, reported to have bone anabolic action in ovariectomized rats. Here, we studied the effect of GTDF in glucocorticoid (GC)-induced bone loss and its mode of action. Osteoblasts were cultured from rat calvaria or bone marrow to study apoptosis and differentiation by dexamethasone (Dex), methylprednisolone (MP), GTDF, quercetin and rutin. Female Sprague Dawley rats were treated with Dex or MP with or without GTDF or PTH. Efficacy was evaluated by bone microarchitecture using microcomputed tomography, determination of new bone formation by fluorescent labeling of bone and osteoblast apoptosis by co-labeling bone sections with Runx-2 and TUNEL. Serum osteocalcin was determined by ELISA. GTDF preserved trabecular and cortical bones in the presence of Dex and MP and mitigated the MP-mediated suppression of serum osteocalcin. Co-administration of GTDF to MP rats increased mineral apposition, bone formation rates, bone biomechanical strength, reduced osteoblast apoptosis and increased osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells compared to MP group, suggesting in vivo osteogenic effect of GTDF. These effects of GTDF were to a great extent comparable to PTH. GTDF prevented GC-induced osteoblast apoptosis by inhibiting p53 expression and acetylation, and activation of AKT but did not influence transactivation of GC receptor (GR). GTDF protects against GC-induced bone loss by promoting osteoblast survival through p53 inhibition and activation of AKT pathways but not as a GR antagonist. GTDF has the potential in the management of GC-induced osteopenia.
    Phytomedicine: international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology 08/2013; · 2.97 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

1 Download
Available from
Sep 23, 2014