Diversity in the Content of Some Nutritional Components in Husked Seeds of Three Wild Rice Species and Rice Varieties in Yunnan Province of China

Yunnan University, Yün-nan, Yunnan, China
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology (Impact Factor: 3.34). 09/2005; 47(10):1260 - 1270. DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00130.x


In addition to rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, there are three wild rice species, namely O. rufipogon Griff, O. officinalis Wall and O. granulata Baill, in Yunnan Province, China. Each species has different subtypes and ecological distributions. Yunnan wild rice species are excellent genetic resources for developing new rice cultivars. The nutritional components of the husked seeds of wild rice have not been investigated thus far. Herein, we report on the contents of total protein, starch, amylose, 17 amino acids, and five macro and five trace mineral elements in husked seeds from three wild rice species and six O. sativa cultivars. The mean (±SD) protein content in the husked rice of O. rufipogon, O. officinalis, and O. granulata was (14.5 ± 0.6)%, (16.3 ± 1.1)%, and (15.3 ± 0.5)%, respectively. O. officinalis III originating from Gengma had the highest protein content (19.3%). In contrast, the average protein content of six O. sativa cultivars was only 9.15%. The total content of 17 amino acids of three wild rice species was 30%-50% higher than that of the six cultivars. Tyrosine, lysine, and valine content in the three wild rice species was 34%-209% higher than that of the cultivars. However, the difference in total starch content among different O. sativa varieties or types of wild rice species was very small. The average amylose content of O. rufipogon, O. officinalis, and O. granulata was 12.0%, 9.7%, and 11.3%, respectively, much lower than that of the indica and japonica varieties (14.37%-17.17%) but much higher than that of the glutinous rice cultivars (3.89%). The sulfur, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, and ferrite content in the three wild rice species was 30%-158% higher than that of the six cultivars. The considerable difference in some nutritional components among wild rice species and O. sativa cultivars represents a wide biodiversity of Yunnan Oryza species. Based on the results of the present study, it is predicted that some good genetic traits, especially high protein and ideal amylose content, of Yunnan wild rice species may be useful in improving the nutritional value of rice. This is the first report regarding the amino acid, mineral element, protein and amylose content of husked seeds of some Yunnan wild rice species that have important genetic characteristics for rice quality and nutritional value.
(Managing editor: Wei WANG)

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Available from: Ming-Zhi Yang, Aug 13, 2014
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    • "Seven model-based populations were identified on the basis of the genetic structure of 692 rice landraces in Yunnan revealed by 36 simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, and are partly consistent with Ding's five-level taxonomic system (Zhang et al. 2006). The five macroelements (P, K, Ca, Mg and S) of brown rice from O. rufipogon and O. officinalis and O. granulata were higher than that of the six cultivars (Cheng et al. 2005). The origin of cultivated rice has puzzled plant biologists for decades (Sang and Ge 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: The phylogenetic relationship for classification traits and eight mineral elements in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) from Yunnan Province in China was carried out using microwave assisted digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and the analytical procedures were carefully controlled and validated. In general, the results show that the mean levels of K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Cu in brown rice for 789 accessions of rice landraces was distinctly lower than that of improved cultivars. They further demonstrate that Ca plays an important role in the differentiation of subspecies indica-japonica, especially to enhance adaptation of cold stress, and that five mineral elements in brown rice enhance the eurytopicity from landrace to improved cultivar. Hierarchical cluster analysis, using average linkage from SPSS software based on eight mineral elements in brown rice, showed that Yunnan rice could be grouped into rice landrace and improved cultivar, with the rice landrace being further clustered into five subgroups, and that, interestingly, purple rice does not cluster with either of the groups. Our present data confirm that indica is the closest relative of late rice and white rice, and that they constitute rice landraces together, whereas japonica is the closest relatives of non-nuda, early-mid and glutinous rice. It is further shown that japonica, non-nuda, early-mid, glutinous, white and red rice might be more primitive than indica, nuda, late, non-glutinous and purple rice, respectively.
    Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 06/2009; 51(5):466-75. DOI:10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00820.x · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In present study, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ca, Mg, P and K contents of 85 introgression lines (ILs) derived from a cross between an elite indica cultivar Teqing and the wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) were measured by inductively coupled argon plasma (ICAP) spectrometry. Substantial variation was observed for all traits and most of the mineral elements were significantly positive correlated or independent except for Fe with Cu. A total of 31 putative quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected for these eight mineral elements by single point analysis. Wild rice (O. rufipogon) contributed favorable alleles for most of the QTLs (26 QTLs), and chromosomes 1, 9 and 12 exhibited 14 QTLs (45%) for these traits. One major effect of QTL for zinc content accounted for the largest proportion of phenotypic variation (11%-19%) was detected near the simple sequence repeats marker RM152 on chromosome 8. The co-locations of QTLs for some mineral elements observed in this mapping population suggested the relationship was at a molecular level among these traits and could be helpful for simultaneous improvement of these traits in rice grain by marker assisted selection.
    Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 02/2009; 51(1):84-92. DOI:10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00730.x · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The total protein contents of rice seeds are significantly higher in the three wild rice species (Oryza rufipogon Grill., Oryza officinalis Wall. and Oryza meyeriana Baill.) than in the cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, there is still no report regarding a systematic proteomic analysis of seed proteins in the wild rice species. Also, the relationship between the contents of seed total proteins and rice nutritional quality has not been thoroughly investigated. The total seed protein contents, especially the glutelin contents, of the three wild rice species were higher than those of the two cultivated rice materials. Based on the protein banding patterns of SDS-PAGE, O. rufipogon was similar to the two cultivated rice materials, followed by O. officinalis, while O. meyeriana exhibited notable differences. Interestingly, O. meyeriana had high contents of glutelin and low contents of prolamine, and lacked 26 kDa globulin band and appeared a new 28 kDa protein band. However, for O. officinali a 16 kDa protein band was absent and a row of unique 32 kDa proteins appeared. In addition, we found that 13 kDa prolamine band disappeared while special 14 kDa and 12 kDa protein bands were present in O. officinalis. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis revealed remarkable differences in protein profiles of the wild rice species and the two cultivated rice materials. Also, the numbers of detected protein spots of the three wild rice species were significantly higher than those of two cultivated rice. A total of 35 differential protein spots were found for glutelin acidic subunits, glutelin precursors and glutelin basic subunits in wild rice species. Among those, 18 protein spots were specific and 17 major spots were elevated. Six differential protein spots for glutelin acidic subunits were identified, including a glutelin type-A 2 precursor and five hypothetical proteins. This was the first report on proteomic analysis of the three wild rice species. Overall results suggest that there were many new types of glutelin subunits and precursor in the three wild rice species. Hence, wild rice species are important genetic resources for improving nutritional quality to rice.
    Proteome Science 12/2014; 12(1):51. DOI:10.1186/s12953-014-0051-4 · 1.73 Impact Factor