The progression of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) marks a critical step in the evolution of breast cancer. There is some evidence to suggest that dynamic interactions between the neoplastic cells and the tumour microenvironment play an important role. Using the whole-genome cDNA-mediated annealing, selection, extension and ligation assay (WG-DASL, Illumina), we performed gene expression profiling on 87 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples from 17 patients consisting of matched IDC, DCIS and three types of stroma: IDC-S (<3 mm from IDC), DCIS-S (<3 mm from DCIS) and breast cancer associated-normal stroma (BC-NS; >10 mm from IDC or DCIS). Differential gene expression analysis was validated by quantitative real time-PCR, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. The expression of several genes was down-regulated in stroma from cancer patients relative to normal stroma from reduction mammoplasties. In contrast, neoplastic epithelium underwent more gene expression changes during progression, including down regulation of SFRP1. In particular, we observed that molecules related to extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling (e.g. COL11A1, COL5A2 and MMP13) were differentially expressed between DCIS and IDC. COL11A1 was overexpressed in IDC relative to DCIS and was expressed by both the epithelial and stromal compartments but was enriched in invading neoplastic epithelial cells. The contributions of both the epithelial and stromal compartments to the clinically important scenario of progression from DCIS to IDC. Gene expression profiles, we identified differential expression of genes related to ECM remodelling, and specifically the elevated expression of genes such as COL11A1, COL5A2 and MMP13 in epithelial cells of IDC. We propose that these expression changes could be involved in facilitating the transition from in situ disease to invasive cancer and may thus mark a critical point in disease development.
"Several studies based on gene expression propose COL11A1 as a marker to discriminate infiltrating from non-invasive breast lesions  . However, a paper published by Halsted et al. , in contrast to our data, argues that there is COL11A1 expression in the normal breast and non-invasive breast lesions, whereas its expression is reduced when analyzing infiltrating tumors, even though the characterization of protein expression in these articles has been carried out in limited series of patients. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accurate diagnosis of invasive breast lesions, when analyzed by Core Needle Biopsy, may suppose a major challenge for the pathologist. Various markers of invasiveness such as laminin, S-100 protein, P63 or calponin have been described, however none of them is completely reliable. The use of a specific marker of the infiltrating tumor microenvironment seems vital to support the diagnosis of invasive against in situ lesions. At this point, Collagen, type XI, alpha 1 (COL11A1), might be helpful since it has been described associated to cancer associated fibroblasts in other tumors such as lung, pancreas or colorectal. This paper aims to analyze the role of COL11A1 as a marker of invasiveness in breast tumor lesions.
Two hundred and one breast Core Needle Biopsy samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry against pro-COL11A1. The results show a significant difference (p <0.0001) when comparing the expression in infiltrative tumors (93%) versus immunostaining of non-invasive lesions (4%). Forty cases of underestimated DCIS were also stained for COL11A1 presenting a sensitivity of 90% when compared with p63 and calponin which not tagged invasion.
In conclusion pro-COL11A1 expression is a promising marker of invasive breast lesions, and may be included in immunohistochemical panels aiming at identifying infiltration in problematic breast lesions.
Pathology - Research and Practice 12/2014; 210(12). DOI:10.1016/j.prp.2014.07.012 · 1.40 Impact Factor
"Nevertheless, we can affirm that this fibroblast subpopulation is present in 100% of IDC, but only in very few cases of SA. From the genetic point of view, Vargas et al demonstrated that the COL11A1 gene is up regulated in epithelial and stromal cells of IDC in comparison with in situ carcinoma (Vargas et al., 2012). We proved an up regulation of COL11A1 in IDC in comparison with SA; however, since that was not an objective of our study, we did not analyze whether those expressions came from epithelial or from mesenchymal cells. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Our previous studies demonstrated the expression of procollagen11A1 in fibroblasts of pancreatic cancer desmoplasia and the lack of expression in fibroblasts of pancreatitis by means of the polyclonal antibody (anti-proCOL11A1 pAb) we generated. In a similar way, we decided to compare the expression of procollagen11A1 in fibroblasts of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast and fibroblasts of benign sclerosing lesions of the breast, in order to validate the anti-proCOL11A1 pAb in this setting and to study how proCOL11A1 expression relates to other prognostic and predictive factors, as well as to survival.
45 core biopsies of sclerosing adenosis and 50 core biopsies of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast were stained with anti-proCOL11A1 pAb, a polyclonal antibody highly specific to the less homologous fraction of proCOL11A1 (in comparison with proCOL5A1 and proCOL11A2). In addition, the expression of the proCOL11A1 gene was measured by RT-qPCR. On the other hand, the expression of proCOL11A1 was compared to the expression of estrogenic receptors, progestagen receptors, the state of the epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), the histologic grade and the stage of the disease. We also compared the immunohistochemical expression of proCol11A1 to the disease-free interval, and to overall survival.
The immunohistochemical analysis showed that proCOL11A1 was expressed in 100% of infiltrating ductal carcinomas, but only focally expressed in 2.2% (1 case) of sclerosing adenosis, in agreement with RT-qPCR results. ProCOL11A1 expression did not prove to have a prognostic value in relation to the disease-free interval or to overall survival in infiltrating ductal carcinoma.
The anti-proCOL11A1 pAb is a stromal marker for breast cancer and the expression of proCOL11A1 does not seem to have a prognostic value in infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast.
Histology and histopathology 07/2014; 30(1). · 2.10 Impact Factor
"Studies have contributed to elucidating the molecular basis of DCIS progression, and several genes that are putatively involved in the development of an invasive phenotype in epithelial cells have been uncovered. To highlight the most promising candidate genes supposedly involved in DCIS progression, we gathered genes found in at least two independent epithelial cell-based studies [10,13,14,16,40,42–44,47–50] (Table 1). We concurrently used the core analysis tool of the IPA (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software; Ingenuity Systems, Inc.) to increase the understanding of the regulatory interconnection among these genes and the most relevant biological processes. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The spread of mammographic screening programs around the world, including in developing countries, has substantially contributed to the diagnosis of small non-palpable lesions, which has increased the detection rate of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). DCIS is heterogeneous in several ways, such as its clinical presentation, morphology and genomic profile. Excellent outcomes have been reported; however, many questions remain unanswered. For example, which patients groups are over-treated and could instead benefit from minimal intervention and which patient groups require a more traditional multidisciplinary approach. The development of a comprehensive integrated analysis that includes the radiological, morphological and genetic aspects of DCIS is necessary to answer these questions. This review focuses on discussing the significant findings about the morphological and molecular features of DCIS and its progression that have helped to uncover the biological and genetic heterogeneity of this disease. The knowledge gained in recent years might allow the development of tailored clinical management for women with DCIS in the future.
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