Gene expression profiling of tumour epithelial and stromal compartments during breast cancer progression.
ABSTRACT The progression of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) marks a critical step in the evolution of breast cancer. There is some evidence to suggest that dynamic interactions between the neoplastic cells and the tumour microenvironment play an important role. Using the whole-genome cDNA-mediated annealing, selection, extension and ligation assay (WG-DASL, Illumina), we performed gene expression profiling on 87 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples from 17 patients consisting of matched IDC, DCIS and three types of stroma: IDC-S (<3 mm from IDC), DCIS-S (<3 mm from DCIS) and breast cancer associated-normal stroma (BC-NS; >10 mm from IDC or DCIS). Differential gene expression analysis was validated by quantitative real time-PCR, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. The expression of several genes was down-regulated in stroma from cancer patients relative to normal stroma from reduction mammoplasties. In contrast, neoplastic epithelium underwent more gene expression changes during progression, including down regulation of SFRP1. In particular, we observed that molecules related to extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling (e.g. COL11A1, COL5A2 and MMP13) were differentially expressed between DCIS and IDC. COL11A1 was overexpressed in IDC relative to DCIS and was expressed by both the epithelial and stromal compartments but was enriched in invading neoplastic epithelial cells. The contributions of both the epithelial and stromal compartments to the clinically important scenario of progression from DCIS to IDC. Gene expression profiles, we identified differential expression of genes related to ECM remodelling, and specifically the elevated expression of genes such as COL11A1, COL5A2 and MMP13 in epithelial cells of IDC. We propose that these expression changes could be involved in facilitating the transition from in situ disease to invasive cancer and may thus mark a critical point in disease development.
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ABSTRACT: To better understand the relationship between tumor-host interactions and the efficacy of chemotherapy, we have developed an analytical approach to quantify several biological processes observed in gene expression data sets. We tested the approach on tumor biopsies from individuals with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer treated with chemotherapy. We report that increased stromal gene expression predicts resistance to preoperative chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (FEC) in subjects in the EORTC 10994/BIG 00-01 trial. The predictive value of the stromal signature was successfully validated in two independent cohorts of subjects who received chemotherapy but not in an untreated control group, indicating that the signature is predictive rather than prognostic. The genes in the signature are expressed in reactive stroma, according to reanalysis of data from microdissected breast tumor samples. These findings identify a previously undescribed resistance mechanism to FEC treatment and suggest that antistromal agents may offer new ways to overcome resistance to chemotherapy.Nature medicine 02/2009; 15(1):68-74. · 27.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Molecular analysis of invasive breast cancer and its precursors has furthered our understanding of breast cancer progression. In the past few years, new multi-step pathways of breast cancer progression have been delineated through genotypic-phenotypic correlations. Nuclear grade, more than any other pathological feature, is strongly associated with the number and pattern of molecular genetic abnormalities in breast cancer cells. Thus, there are two distinct major pathways to the evolution of low- and high-grade invasive carcinomas: whilst the former consistently show oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) positivity and 16q loss, the latter are usually ER/PgR-negative and show Her-2 overexpression/amplification and complex karyotypes. The boundaries between the evolutionary pathways of well-differentiated/low-grade ductal and lobular carcinomas have been blurred, with changes in E-cadherin expression being one of the few distinguishing features between the two. In addition, lesions long thought to be precursors of breast carcinomas, such as hyperplasia of usual type, are currently considered mere risk indicators, whilst columnar cell lesions are now implicated as non-obligate precursors of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) and well-differentiated ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). However, only through the combination of comprehensive morphological analysis and cutting-edge molecular tools can this knowledge be translated into clinical practice and patient management.The Journal of Pathology 02/2005; 205(2):248-54. · 7.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: S100 protein is a sensitive marker for melanomas and peripheral nerve sheath tumors. It is, however, expressed by other mesenchymal and epithelial tumors. Despite its low specificity, S100 protein is valuable for the diagnosis of desmoplastic melanomas and peripheral nerve sheath tumors, for which no specific marker is available. Sox10 is a neural crest transcription factor crucial for specification, maturation, and maintenance of Schwann cells and melanocytes. Anti-Sox10 antibody was applied to a variety of neural crest-derived tumors, mesenchymal and epithelial neoplasms, and normal tissues. Sox10 nuclear expression was found in 76 of 78 melanomas (97%) and 38 of 77 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (49%) whereas S100 protein was expressed in 71 melanomas (91%) and 23 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (30%). Sox10 was diffusely expressed in schwannomas and neurofibromas. Sox10 reaction was seen only in sustentacular cells of pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas, and occasionally carcinoid tumors from various organs, but it was not seen in the tumor cells. In normal tissues, Sox10 was expressed in Schwann cells, melanocytes, and myoepithelial cells of salivary, bronchial, and mammary glands. Sox10 reaction was not identified in any other mesenchymal and epithelial tumors except for myoepitheliomas and diffuse astrocytomas. Sox10 was expressed by metastatic melanomas and nodal capsular nevus in sentinel lymph nodes, but not by other lymph node components such as dendritic cells. Our results indicate that Sox10 will serve as a more sensitive and specific marker for the diagnosis of melanocytic and schwannian tumors than S100 protein.The American journal of surgical pathology 09/2008; 32(9):1291-8. · 4.06 Impact Factor