Use of the advanced backcross-QTL method to transfer seed mineral accumulation nutrition traits from wild to Andean cultivated common beans.
ABSTRACT Iron deficiency anemia and zinc deficiency are major health concerns across the world and can be addressed by biofortification breeding of higher mineral concentration in staple crops, such as common bean. Wild common beans have for the most part had higher average seed mineral concentration than cultivars of this species but have small un-commercial seeds. A logical approach for the transfer of the seed mineral trait from wild beans to cultivated beans is through the advanced backcross breeding approach. The goal of this study was to analyze a population of 138 BC(2)F(3:5) introgression lines derived from the very high iron wild genotype G10022 backcrossed into the genetic background of the commercial-type variety 'Cerinza', a large-red seeded bush bean cultivar of the Andean genepool. In addition to measuring seed mineral accumulation traits and the quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling these traits we were interested in simultaneously testing the adaptation of the introgression lines in two replicated yield trials. We found the cross to have high polymorphism and constructed an anchored microsatellite map for the population that was 1,554-cM long and covered all 11 linkage groups of the common bean genome. Through composite interval mapping (CIM) and single point analysis (SPA), we identified associations of markers and mineral traits on b01, b06, b07, b08, b10 and b11 for seed iron concentration, and markers on b01, b04 and b10 for seed zinc concentration. The b07 and b08 QTL aligned with previous QTL for iron concentration. A large number of QTL were found for seed weight (9 with CIM and 36 with SPA analysis) and correlations between seed size and mineral content affected the identification of iron and zinc contents' QTL on many linkage groups. Segregation distortion around domestication genes made some areas difficult to introgress. However, in conclusion, the advanced backcross program produced some introgression lines with high mineral accumulation traits using a wild donor parent.
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ABSTRACT: Economically, legumes (Fabaceae) represent the second most important family of crop plants after the grass family, Poaceae. Grain legumes account for 27% of world crop production and provide 33% of the dietary protein consumed by humans, while pasture and forage legumes provide vital part of animal feed. Fabaceae, the third largest family of flowering plants, has traditionally been divided into the following three subfamilies: Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae, and Papilionoideae, all together with 800 genera and 20,000 species. The latter subfamily contains most of the major cultivated food and feed crops. Among the grain legumes are some of mankind's earliest crop plants, whose domestication parallelled that of cereals: Soybean in China; faba bean, lentil, chickpea and pea in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East; cowpeas and bambara groundnut in Africa; soybean and mungbeans in East Asia; pigeonpea and the grams in South Asia; and common bean, lima bean, scarlet runner bean, tepary bean and lupin in Central and South America. The importance of legumes is evidenced by their high representation in ex situ germplasm collections, with more than 1,000,000 accessions worldwide. A detailed knowledge of the phylogenetic relationships of the Fabaceae is essential for understanding the origin and diversification of this economically and ecologically important family of angiosperms. This review aims to combine the phylogenetic and genetic diversity approaches to better illustrate the origin, domestication history and preserved germplasm of major legume crops from 13 genera of six tribes and to indicate further potential both for science and agriculture.Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 10/2014; 33(1-3):43-104. DOI:10.1080/07352689.2014.897904 · 5.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Common beans are a staple food and the major source of iron for populations in Eastern Africa and Latin America. Bean iron concentration is high and can be further increased by biofortification. A major constraint to bean iron biofortification is low iron absorption, attributed to inhibitory compounds such as phytic acid (PA) and polyphenol(s) (PP). We have evaluated the usefulness of the common bean as a vehicle for iron biofortification. High iron concentrations and wide genetic variability have enabled plant breeders to develop high iron bean varieties (up to 10 mg/100 g). PA concentrations in beans are high and tend to increase with iron biofortification. Short-term human isotope studies indicate that iron absorption from beans is low, PA is the major inhibitor, and bean PP play a minor role. Multiple composite meal studies indicate that decreasing the PA level in the biofortified varieties substantially increases iron absorption. Fractional iron absorption from composite meals was 4%-7% in iron deficient women; thus the consumption of 100 g biofortified beans/day would provide about 30%-50% of their daily iron requirement. Beans are a good vehicle for iron biofortification, and regular high consumption would be expected to help combat iron deficiency (ID).Nutrients 02/2015; 7(2):1144-1173. DOI:10.3390/nu7021144 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although yield and total biomass produced by annual legumes remain major objectives for breeders, other issues such as environment-friendly, resource use efficiency including symbiotic performance, resilient production in the context of climate change, adaptation to sustainable cropping systems (reducing leaching, greenhouse gas emissions and pesticide residues), adaptation to diverse uses (seeds for feed, food, non-food, forage or green manure) and finally new ecological services such as pollinator protection, imply the need for definition of new ideotypes and development of innovative genotypes to enhance their commercialization. Taken as a whole, this means more complex and integrated objectives for breeders. Several illustrations will be given of breeding such complex traits for different annual legume species. Genetic diversity for root development and for the ability to establish efficient symbioses with rhizobia and mycorrhiza can contribute to better resource management (N, P, water). Shoot architectures and phenologies can contribute to yield and biotic constraint protection (parasitic weeds, diseases or insects) reducing pesticide use. Variable maturity periods and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses are key features for the introduction of annual legumes to low input cropping systems and for enlarging cultivated area. Adaptation to intercropping requires adapted genotypes. Improved health and nutritional value for humans are key objectives for developing new markets. Modifying product composition often requires the development of specific cultivars and sometimes the need to break negative genetic correlations with yield. A holistic approach in legume breeding is important for defining objectives with farmers, processors and consumers. The cultivar structures are likely to be more complex, combining genotypes, plant species and associated symbionts. New tools to build and evaluate them are important if legumes are to deliver their exciting potential in terms of agricultural productivity and sustainability as well as for feed and food.Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 06/2015; 34. DOI:10.1080/07352689.2014.898469 · 5.29 Impact Factor