Polydextrose: its impact on short-term food intake and subjective feelings of satiety in males-a randomized controlled cross-over study.
ABSTRACT PURPOSE: Polydextrose is a low-calorie highly branched-chain glucose polymer that is poorly digested in the upper gastrointestinal tract and therefore demonstrates fibre-like properties. Fibre has been shown to increase satiety and possibly reduce food intake. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to examine the effects of polydextrose on short-term satiety and energy intake. METHODS: In a repeated-measures randomized blind cross-over design, 26 healthy males consumed a 400-g fruit smoothie containing 12 g (3 %) of polydextrose, and a buffet lunch 60 min after the smoothie. Motivational ratings for satiety and palatability and lunch energy intake were measured. The effects of the polydextrose-containing smoothie were compared against a polydextrose-free control smoothie. RESULTS: Polydextrose did not significantly alter the taste and palatability of the fruit smoothie. Consuming the polydextrose-containing smoothie resulted in a significantly lower energy intake at lunch (102 kcal less) compared to the control. CONCLUSION: Polydextrose may be a good fortificant for reducing short-term food intake.
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ABSTRACT: Polydextrose (Litesse) provides physiological effects consistent with dietary fiber. However, AOAC methods for measuring total dietary fiber (TDF) in foods include an ethanol precipitation step in which polydextrose and similar carbohydrates are discarded and therefore not quantitated. This study describes a method developed to quantitate polydextrose in foods. The new method includes water extraction, centrifugal ultrafiltration, multienzyme hydrolysis, and anion exchange chromatography with electrochemical detection. Six foods were prepared with 4 levels of polydextrose to test the ruggedness of the method. Internal validation demonstrated the ruggedness of the method with recoveries ranging from 83 to 104% with an average of 95% (n = 24) and relative standard deviation of recoveries ranging from 0.7 to 13% with an average of 3.3% (n = 24). The value is added to that obtained for dietary fiber content of foods using the AOAC methods, to determine the TDF content of the food.Journal of AOAC International 01/2000; 83(4):1006-12. · 1.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sex differences in eating behavior are well documented, but it is not known whether these differences have neuroanatomical correlates. Recent neuroimaging studies have provided functional maps of the human cerebral areas activated in response to hunger and satiation. The objective of this study was to assess whether the brain's response to a meal is sex-specific. Using positron emission tomography, we measured regional cerebral blood flow, a marker of neuronal activity, to investigate the functional neuroanatomy of hunger (36-h fast) and satiation (in response to a liquid meal) in 22 women and 22 men. We observed extensive similarities, as well as some differences, between the sexes. In response to hunger, the men tended to have greater activation in the frontotemporal and paralimbic areas than did the women (P < 0.005). In response to satiation, the women tended to have greater activation in the occipital and parietal sensory association areas and in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex than did the men (P < 0.005); in contrast, the men tended to have greater activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex than did the women (P < 0.005). Despite extensive similarities in the brain responses to hunger and satiation between the men and women, our study showed sex-specific brain responses to a meal that indicate possible differences between men and women in the cognitive and emotional processing of hunger and satiation. This study provides a foundation for investigating the brain regions and cognitive processes that distinguish normal and abnormal eating behavior in men and women.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 07/2002; 75(6):1017-22. · 6.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Circadian (24-hour) rhythms in the feeding behavior of humans were investigated using diary self-reports of spontaneous food intake. Eight male and 30 female undergraduate students recorded what they ate, when they ate it, and their mood at the time of ingestion in a diary over a consecutive nine day period. Self-ratings of depression, energy, and anxiety were made at the beginning of each meal on three seven-point scales. The total amount of food energy in each meal as well as the amount of protein, carbohydrate, and fat, the intervals prior to and following the meals, and the satiety and deprivation ratios were calculated. The food energy contained in the stomach at the beginning and end of each meal was estimated with a mathematical model. These variables were evaluated in relation to the time of meal occurrence during the day. Fluctuations in the levels of self-rated energy and anxiety, but not depression, were detected during the day. Clear 24-hour rhythms were identified for the amount eaten and the macronutrients ingested during the day with decreases for males and increases for females. The amount eaten per meal and the meal's content of carbohydrate or fat, but not protein, varied over the day with peaks at the lunch and dinner periods. A clear sex difference without circadian variation was apparent with the deprivation ratios. This suggests that males eat larger meals than females because of a heightened responsivity to deprivation and not to a smaller response to the satiating properties of food. Preprandial correlations were found for meals occurring either during the breakfast or the dinner periods. No postprandial correlations were found. These data demonstrate that the preprandial correlations are not an artifact produced by the 24-hour rhythm and suggests that they reflect a basic regulatory strategy employed by humans. As the day progressed, postmeal intervals and satiety ratios decreased, while premeal intervals increased. This suggests that humans obtain less satiety from a given amount of food later in the day than earlier. It is postulated that this represents eating which anticipates the overnight fast. These data clearly demonstrate the efficacy of the approach and the orderly, analyzable nature of the spontaneous eating behavior of humans.Physiology & Behavior 02/1987; 40(4):437-46. · 3.16 Impact Factor