Foxk1 recruits the Sds3 complex and represses gene expression in myogenic progenitors.
ABSTRACT Previous studies have established that Foxk1 (forkhead box k1) plays an important role in skeletal muscle regeneration. Foxk1 regulates the cell-cycle progression of myogenic progenitors by repressing the cell-cycle inhibitor gene p21. However, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. In the present study, we report the identification of Sds3 (suppressor of defective silencing 3) as an adaptor protein that recruits the Sin3 [SWI (switch)-independent 3]-HDAC (histone deacetylase) repression complex and binds Foxk1. Using GST (glutathione transferase) pull-down assays, we defined the interaction between the Foxk1 FHA (forkhead-associated domain) domain and phospho-Thr(49) in Sds3. We demonstrated that the transcriptional repression of Foxk1 is dependent on the Sin3-Sds3 repression complex, and knockdown of Sds3 results in cell-cycle arrest. We further identified the protein kinase CK2 as the protein kinase for Sds3 Thr(49) and demonstrated that the protein kinase activity of CK2 is required for proper cell-cycle progression. Analysis of CK2 mutant mice reveals perturbation of skeletal muscle regeneration due to the dysregulation of cell-cycle kinetics. Overall, these studies define a CK2-Sds3-Foxk1 cascade that modulates gene expression and regulates skeletal muscle regeneration.
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ABSTRACT: The mechanisms that regulate skeletal muscle differentiation, fiber type diversity and muscle regeneration are incompletely defined. Forkhead transcription factors are critical regulators of cellular fate determination, proliferation, and differentiation. We identified a forkhead/winged helix transcription factor, Foxj3, which was expressed in embryonic and adult skeletal muscle. To define the functional role of Foxj3, we examined Foxj3 mutant mice. Foxj3 mutant mice are viable but have significantly fewer Type I slow-twitch myofibers and have impaired skeletal muscle contractile function compared to their wild type controls. In response to a severe injury, Foxj3 mutant mice have impaired muscle regeneration. Foxj3 mutant myogenic progenitor cells have perturbed cell cycle kinetics and decreased expression of Mef2c. Examination of the skeletal muscle 5' upstream enhancer of the Mef2c gene revealed an evolutionary conserved forkhead binding site (FBS). Transcriptional assays in C2C12 myoblasts revealed that Foxj3 transcriptionally activates the Mef2c gene in a dose dependent fashion and binds to the conserved FBS. Together, these studies support the hypothesis that Foxj3 is an important regulator of myofiber identity and muscle regeneration through the transcriptional activation of the Mef2c gene.Developmental Biology 11/2009; 337(2):396-404. · 3.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: CK2 (formerly termed "casein kinase 2") is a ubiquitous, highly pleiotropic and constitutively active Ser/Thr protein kinase whose implication in neoplasia, cell survival, and virus infection is supported by an increasing number of arguments. Here an updated inventory of 307 CK2 protein substrates is presented. More than one-third of these are implicated in gene expression and protein synthesis as being either transcriptional factors (60) or effectors of DNA/RNA structure (50) or translational elements. Also numerous are signaling proteins and proteins of viral origin or essential to virus life cycle. In comparison, only a minority of CK2 targets (a dozen or so) are classical metabolic enzymes. An analysis of 308 sites phosphorylated by CK2 highlights the paramount relevance of negatively charged side chains that are (by far) predominant over any other residues at positions n+3 (the most crucial one), n+1, and n+2. Based on this signature, it is predictable that proteins phosphorylated by CK2 are much more numerous than those identified to date, and it is possible that CK2 alone contributes to the generation of the eukaryotic phosphoproteome more so than any other individual protein kinase. The possibility that CK2 phosphosites play some global role, e.g., by destabilizing alpha helices, counteracting caspase cleavage, and generating adhesive motifs, will be discussed.The FASEB Journal 04/2003; 17(3):349-68. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Protein kinase CK2 (formerly casein kinase II) is a highly conserved and ubiquitous serine/threonine kinase that is composed of two catalytic subunits (CK2alpha and/or CK2alpha') and two CK2beta regulatory subunits. CK2 has many substrates in cells, and key roles in yeast cell physiology have been uncovered by introducing subunit mutations. Gene-targeting experiments have demonstrated that in mice, the CK2beta gene is required for early embryonic development, while the CK2alpha' subunit appears to be essential only for normal spermatogenesis. We have used homologous recombination to disrupt the CK2alpha gene in the mouse germ line. Embryos lacking CK2alpha have a marked reduction in CK2 activity in spite of the presence of the CK2alpha' subunit. CK2alpha(-/-) embryos die in mid-gestation, with abnormalities including open neural tubes and reductions in the branchial arches. Defects in the formation of the heart lead to hydrops fetalis and are likely the cause of embryonic lethality. Thus, CK2alpha appears to play an essential and uncompensated role in mammalian development.Molecular and cellular biology 02/2008; 28(1):131-9. · 6.06 Impact Factor