Comparison of bacteria and fungus-binding mesh, foam and gauze as fillers in negative pressure wound therapy - pressure transduction, wound edge contraction, microvascular blood flow and fluid retention.
ABSTRACT Bacteria- and fungus-binding mesh binds and inactivates bacteria and fungus, which makes it interesting, alternative, wound filler for negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). This study was conducted to compare the performance of pathogen-binding mesh, foam and gauze as wound fillers in NPWT with regard to pressure transduction, fluid retention, wound contraction and microvascular blood flow. Wounds on the backs of 16 pigs were filled with pathogen-binding mesh, foam or gauze and treated with NPWT. The immediate effects of 0, -40, -60, -80 and -120 mmHg, on pressure transduction and blood flow were examined in eight pigs using laser Doppler velocimetry. Wound contraction and fluid retention were studied during 72 hours of NPWT at -80 and -120 mmHg in the other eight pigs. Pathogen-binding mesh, gauze and foam provide similar pressure transduction to the wound bed during NPWT. Blood flow was found to decrease 0·5 cm laterally from the wound edge and increase 2·5 cm from the wound edge, but was unaltered 5·0 cm from the wound edge. The increase in blood flow was similar with all wound fillers. The decrease in blood flow was more pronounced with foam than with gauze and pathogen-binding mesh. Similarly, wound contraction was more pronounced with foam, than with gauze and pathogen-binding mesh. Wound fluid retention was the same in foam and pathogen-binding mesh, while more fluid was retained in the wound when using gauze. The blood flow 0·5-5 cm from the wound edge and the contraction of the wound during NPWT were similar when using pathogen-binding mesh and gauze. Wound fluid was efficiently removed through the pathogen-binding mesh, which may explain previous findings that granulation tissue formation is more rapid under pathogen-binding mesh than under gauze. This, in combination with its pathogen-binding properties, makes this mesh an interesting wound filler for use in NPWT.
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ABSTRACT: The use of a rigid disc as a barrier between the wound bed and the wound filler during negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been suggested to prevent damage to exposed organs. However, it is important to determine that the effects of NPWT, such as wound contraction and fluid removal, are maintained during treatment despite the use of a barrier. This study was performed to examine the effect of NPWT on wound contraction and fluid evacuation in the presence of a rigid disc. Peripheral wounds were created on the backs of eight pigs. The wounds were filled with foam, and rigid discs of different designs were inserted between the wound bed and the foam. Wound contraction and fluid evacuation were measured after application of continuous NPWT at -80 mmHg. Wound contraction was similar in the presence and the absence of a rigid disc (84 ± 4% and 83 ± 3%, respectively, compared with baseline). Furthermore, the rigid disc did not affect wound fluid removal compared with ordinary NPWT (e.g. after 120 seconds, 71 ± 4 ml was removed in the presence and 73 ± 3 ml was removed in the absence of a disc). This study shows that a rigid barrier may be placed under the wound filler to protect exposed structures during NPWT without affecting wound contraction and fluid removal, which are two crucial features of NPWT.International Wound Journal 05/2011; 8(4):393-9. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A recent study demonstrated that negative-pressure wound therapy increases underlying tissue pressure. This finding is incongruous with studies using laser Doppler that show that perfusion is immediately increased on initiation of suction. This study investigated perfusion in negative-pressure wound therapy using two alternative modalities. Radioisotope perfusion imaging was used to determine perfusion beneath circumferential negative-pressure wound therapy dressings on 20 healthy hands (n = 20). Ten hands received suction pressures of -400 mmHg and 10 received -125 mmHg, with the contralateral hand used as a control without any suction. Transcutaneous partial pressure of oxygen was used to determine perfusion beneath noncircumferential negative-pressure wound therapy dressings on 12 healthy legs (n = 12), with each volunteer being sequentially randomized to receive suction pressures of -400 and -125 mmHg, respectively. Tissues undergoing circumferential negative-pressure wound therapy demonstrated a mean reduction in perfusion of 40 +/- 11.5 percent (p < 0.0005) and 17 +/- 8.9 percent (p < 0.0005) at suction pressures of -400 mmHg and -125 mmHg, respectively. Perfusion reduction at -400 mmHg was significantly greater than at -125 mmHg (p < 0.015). In the noncircumferential negative-pressure wound therapy group, there was a mean reduction in transcutaneous partial pressure of oxygen of 7.35 +/- 7.4 mmHg (p < 0.0005) and 5.10 +/- 7.4 mmHg (p < 0.0005) at suction pressures of -400 mmHg and -125 mmHg, respectively. There was a tendency for greater reductions in the -400 mmHg group, but this was not significantly different from the -125 mmHg group (p = 0.07). These findings demonstrate that perfusion beneath negative-pressure wound therapy decreases for increasing suction pressure. Thus, it is suggested that negative-pressure wound therapy should be used with caution on tissues with compromised vascularity, particularly when used circumferentially.Plastic and reconstructive surgery 02/2009; 123(2):601-12. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Currently available research suggests that negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) creates a moist wound healing environment, drains exudate, reduces tissue edema, contracts the wound edges, mechanically stimulates the wound bed, and influences blood perfusion at the wound edge, which may lead to angiogenesis and the formation of granulation tissue. Although no clear evidence is available that NPWT accelerates wound healing compared to other interventions or that one form of NPWT is better than another, preclinical research suggests that the most commonly used dressings, level of negative pressure, and application mode (continuous, intermittent, or variable) may not be optimal for all patients. To summarize available literature related to these NPWT choices, pertinent literature published between 2005 and 2010 was reviewed. Preclinical study results suggest that the maximal biological effect of NPWT at the wound edge often can be achieved at -80 mm Hg and that foam dressings may be advantageous for large defect wounds, whereas gauze dressings may be more suitable for smaller wounds or when scar formation or pain is a concern. Preclinical research results also suggest that intermittent or variable pressure application has a better effect on granulation tissue formation than continuous application. The variable pressure mode maintains a negative pressure environment at lower pressure settings without dramatic fluctuations inherent to intermittent (on-and-off) pressure. Prospective, controlled clinical studies are needed to compare NPWT to other advanced wound care protocols of care and to ascertain the effect of various NPWT methods and regimens on outcomes of care.Ostomy/wound management 04/2011; 57(4):44-54. · 1.03 Impact Factor