Our aim was to determine bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) and fractional exhaled NO (FeNO) in a cohort followed and treated for Crohn's disease (CD) in a Pediatric Gastroenterology Unit.
Consecutive children with CD were referred to the Pediatric Pulmonary Unit. Each patient completed a questionnaire, followed by spirometry, methacholine challenge test (MCT) and determination of FeNO. The control group included patients evaluated for functional cough who had negative MCT.
Twenty-three children and young adults (mean age, 17.39 ± 2.96 years) with CD were compared to 24 healthy controls. 20/23 patients received immunomodulating treatment. Forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) was significantly lower prior to (93.74 ± 10.81%, p = 0.009) and at the end of (78.91 ± 18.39%, p = 0.001) the MCT in the CD group compared with the control group (102.2 ± 10.477% and 95.33 ± 11.075%, respectively). Bronchial hyper-responsiveness was observed in 30.4% of patients with CD. FeNO levels were 15.37 ± 24.17 in CD and 11.38 ± 5.42 in the control group (p = 0.21). Neither the response to MCT nor FeNO levels were affected by the disease duration or activity index.
In our series, BHR is less frequent than previously described in children with CD. We hypothesize that our finding could result from immunomodulating treatments or lower disease activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the known systemic manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and a large number of reports associating lung disease and IBD, the frequency of atopy and bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) in IBD remains obscure.
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of abnormal pulmonary function tests, BHR and the atopic status in patients with IBD.
Thirty patients with IBD (19 with ulcerative colitis and 11 with Crohn's disease; 19 male, 11 female) and 16 controls without any gastrointestinal disease (9 female, 7 male) were included. Patients were questioned with respect to pulmonary and allergic symptoms; subsequently, lung function tests, BHR, skin prick test positivity, peripheral eosinophilia and serum IgE levels were evaluated and compared with those of control subjects.
The mean duration of IBD was 5.3 +/- 4.8 years. IBD patients had significantly more often respiratory symptoms in comparison with controls (odds ratio, OR: 9.0, p < 0.04). A previous diagnosis of asthma and antiasthmatic drug treatment were noted in 3/30 (10%) IBD patients. Allergic symptoms were more prevalent in IBD patients in comparison with the controls (OR: 13, p < 0.007), particularly in patients with ulcerative colitis (OR: 16, p < 0.004). The mean FEV(1 )was 3.1 +/- 0.9 liters (96 +/- 18% predicted), mean methacholine PD(20): 14.7 +/- 3.6 mg/ml, mean IgE: 190.5 +/- 305.6 IU/ml (normal value <94 IU/ml) and the percentage of peripheral eosinophils was 3.1 +/- 3.3% in the IBD patients. These values did not result in statistically significant differences in comparison with controls. Furthermore, abnormal lung function and BHR were observed in 8/30 (27%) and 5/30 (17%) IBD patients, respectively. Abnormal lung function tests were more prevalent in the IBD patients than in the controls (OR: 12, p < 0.04). Skin prick tests were positive in 15/30 (50%) IBD patients. The risk of a positive skin prick test increased in the IBD patients in comparison with the controls (OR: 7.0, p < 0.02). Duration and activity of IBD did not influence the prevalence of BHR, allergic and respiratory symptoms, abnormal lung function, high serum IgE levels and skin test positivity.
Allergic symptoms, respiratory symptoms, abnormal lung function tests and skin prick test positivity were more common among the IBD patients in comparison with the controls.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the genetic susceptibility to asthma, we developed an algorithm to classify the phenotype of each family member enrolled in a family study on the genetics of asthma. This algorithm was applied to 92, two- and three-generation families, identified through a subject (proband) with asthma first diagnosed 25 yr previously. The algorithm consisted of five classes based on the presence or absence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), respiratory symptoms, smoking, airways obstruction, and bronchodilator reversibility. All family members were classified as: (1) definite asthma; (2) probable asthma; (3) unclassifiable airway disease; (4) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); (5) unaffected (without clinical evidence of asthma and COPD). Thirteen of the 92 probands (14%) could not be classified as asthmatic when retested 25 yr later because of loss of BHR, loss of bronchodilator reversibility, or a current history of cigarette smoking. Of the 265 first-degree offspring, 49 (18%) were classified as having definite asthma (Class 1), and 22 (8%) as probable asthma (Class 2). A large number of offspring with clinical evidence of asthma did not have a prior physician's diagnosis of asthma, and offspring in Class 1 (definite asthma), with and without a physician's diagnosis, had similar clinical and physiologic characteristics. These results support the usefulness of this approach to classify subjects with asthma for genetic epidemiologic studies and show that reliance on a prior physician's diagnosis may result in misclassification or underdiagnosis. Characterization of the offspring in this family study showed that there is familial clustering, which supports the presence of a hereditary component in asthma.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 07/1998; 157(6 Pt 1):1734-42. DOI:10.1164/ajrccm.157.6.9606088 · 13.00 Impact Factor
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