Scorpion sting: Update

Bawaskar Hospital and Research Centre, Mahad, Raigad, Maharashtra, India.
The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 06/2012; 60(1):46-55.
Source: PubMed


Scorpion envenomation is an important public health hazard in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Envenomation by scorpions can result in a wide range of clinical effects, including, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity and respiratory dysfunction. Out of 1500 scorpion species known to exist, about 30 are of medical importance. Although a variety of different scorpion species exist, majority of them produce similar cardiovascular effects. Scientists and clinicians have studied patho-physiology of scorpion envenomation by critical observations of clinical, neurotransmitters studies, radioisotope studies, echocardiography and haemodynamic patterns. Regimen including scorpion antivenom, vasodilators, intensive care management have been tried to alleviate the systemic effects of envenoming. In spite of advances in patho-physiology and therapy the mortality remains high in rural areas due to lack of access to medical facilities, moreover the medical attendee from developing tropical countries may not be aware of the advances in the treatment of scorpion sting. Since the advent of scorpion Antivenom, vasodilators, dobutamine and intensive care facilities, the fatality due to severe scorpion sting has been significantly reduced in areas where these treatment modalities are used.

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    • "In the ancient Persia, scorpion is called " Gazdum " (stinger tail) or " Kajdom " (slanted tail) [16]. All scorpions are nocturnal, hiding during the day under stones, woods or tree barks, and many of them inhabit in dry, hot environments [17]. Although all scorpion species are venomous, only a few of them are life-threatening and potentially dangerous to human. "
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    ABSTRACT: Through natural selection, many animal organs have evolved superior mechanical properties and elegant hierarchical structures adaptive to their multiple biological functions. We combine experiments and theory to investigate the composition-structure-property-function relations of scorpion stingers. Their hierarchical structures and functionally gradient mechanical properties were revealed. Slow motion analysis of the penetration process of a scorpion stinger was performed to examine the refined survival skills of scorpions. An experiment-based mechanics model of the stinger was proposed, the results of which revealed an optimized range of penetration angle in an insertion event. Both theoretical and numerical results are in good agreement with our experimental measurements. The analysis method and physical insights of this work are potentially important for investigating a general class of sharp-edge biological materials, e.g., cattle horns, spider fangs, cat claws, and plant thorns.
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    • "Stings by venomous animals are a concern to health authorities in many Middle-east countries because of the severity, extent, and a wide range of clinical effects. Although various scorpions are exist, majority of stings result in cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity and respiratory dysfunctions (2, 3). Despite the great number of Iranian scorpion species, only a few are studied or even considered as being truly dangerous. "
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    ABSTRACT: This epidemiological review was carried out to display the magnitude and the geographic distribution of scorpion envenomation in Iran with focus on the southwestern region of Iran, particularly. The Iranian recognized scorpions belonging to two families, including Buthidae and Scorpionidae. Buthidae family consists of 14 genuses, 26 species, and 18 sub-species, while Scorpionidae family has three genuses and four species. The lack of basic knowledge, including the geographical distribution, clinical manifestations, and specific treatments related to scorpiofauna justifies such multidisciplinary studies. The venom of two endemic Iranian scorpions, including Hemiscorpius lepturus (H. lepturus) and Odonthubuthus doriae (O.doriae) have considered as an effective source of new neurotoxin peptides for the further development of physio-pharmacological probes and designing the clinical trials. Such epidemiological information may improve the determinants of Iranian scorpion stings in order to plan and implement effective public health intervention.
    Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research (IJPR) 07/2014; 13(3):743-756. · 1.07 Impact Factor
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    • "Scorpions are medically important arthropods of the class Arachnida that commonly found in hot, dry environments [1] [2] . They are generally nocturnal and emerge after sunset, taking cover during the day under rocks, in crevices, or within burrows [3] . "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To identify the scorpion fauna and classify the epidemiological aspects of scorpionism in an endemic region, Southeast Iran. Methods: Scorpionism data were collected from health centers and hospitals in Sistan-Baluchestan Province during 2010-2011. Specimens were collected at night, using UV light, between May and October 2012. Results: In total, 246 scorpions were collected from two families (Buthidae and Scorpionidae). Five species including Odontobuthus odonturus, Hottentotta (Buthotus) jayakari, Compsobuthus matthiesseni, Scorpio maurus and Orthochirus scrobiculosus are reported for the first time from this area. Androctonus crassicauda was the dominant species. In total, 3 638 scorpion sting cases were recorded by health system, the majority of which were females. Stings mostly occurred in July and the age group of 15-24 years presented the highest frequency. Scorpionism decreased during 2011 compared with that in 2010 (68.2%). Conclusions: Based on the results, scorpionism is a serious health problem in this area and increasing knowledge of residents regarding the prevention methods of scorpion stings is recommended. Additional research on the scorpion fauna, their ecological and molecular variety in this part of the country is needed as well as the correlation between scorpions' species and the clinical signs and symptoms.
    Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 05/2014; 4(Suppl 1-Suppl 1):S217. DOI:10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1323
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