Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Initiatives to Prevent Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Selective Update

Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.
Clinical Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 8.89). 07/2012; 55 Suppl 1(suppl 1):S49-53. DOI: 10.1093/cid/cis363
Source: PubMed


Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a complex public health problem, characterized by a high prevalence of chronic infection,
an increasing burden of HCV-associated disease, low rates of testing and treatment, and the prospect of increasing incidence
associated with the epidemic of injection drug use. Three-quarters of chronic HCV infections occur among persons born from
1945 through 1965. Prevention efforts are complicated by limited knowledge among health care professionals, persons at risk
and in the public at large. At the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, efforts to improve primary and secondary prevention
effectiveness center on policy development, education and training initiatives, and applied research. This report provides
a brief overview of some of these efforts, including the development of testing recommendations for the 1945–1965 birth cohort,
research and evaluation studies in settings where persons who inject drugs receive services, and a national viral hepatitis
education campaign that targets health care professionals, the public, and persons at risk.

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    ABSTRACT: The impact of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection on health and medical care in the United States is a major problem for infectious disease physicians. Although the incidence of HCV infection has declined markedly in the past 2 decades, chronic infection in 3 million or more residents now accounts for more disease and death in the United States than does human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS. Current trends in the epidemiology of HCV infection include an apparent increase in young, often suburban heroin injection drug users who initiate use with oral prescription opioid drugs; infections in nonhospital healthcare (clinic) settings; and sexual transmission among HIV-infected persons. Infectious disease physicians will increasingly have the responsibility of diagnosing and treating HCV patients. An understanding of how these patients were infected is important for determining whom to screen and treat.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 07/2012; 55 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S3-9. DOI:10.1093/cid/cis393 · 8.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the United States, the peak hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody prevalence of 4% occurred in persons born in the calendar years 1940-1965. The goal of this study was to examine observed and projected age-specific trends in the demand for liver transplantation (LT) among patients with HCV-associated liver disease stratified by concurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). All new adult LT candidates registered with the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network for LT between 1995 and 2010 were identified. Patients who had primary, secondary, or text field diagnoses of HCV with or without HCC were identified. There were 126,862 new primary registrants for LT, and 52,540 (41%) had HCV. The number of new registrants with HCV dramatically differed by the age at calendar year, and this suggested a birth cohort effect. When the candidates were stratified by birth year in 5-year intervals, the birth cohorts with the highest frequency of HCV were as follows (in decreasing order): 1951-1955, 1956-1960, 1946-1950, and 1941-1945. These 4 birth cohorts, spanning from 1941 to 1960, accounted for 81% of all new registrants with HCV. A 4-fold increase in new registrants with HCV and HCC occurred between the calendar years 2000 and 2010 in the 1941-1960 birth cohorts. By 2015, we anticipate that an increasing proportion of new registrants with HCV will have HCC and be ≥60 years old (born in or before 1955). In conclusion, the greatest demand for LT due to HCV-associated liver disease is occurring among individuals born between 1941 and 1960. This demand appears to be driven by the development of HCC in patients with HCV. During the coming decade, the projected increase in the demand for LT from an aging HCV-infected population will challenge the transplant community to reconsider current treatment paradigms. Liver Transpl, 2012. © 2012 AASLD.
    Liver Transplantation 12/2012; 18(12). DOI:10.1002/lt.23551 · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver diseases worldwide. Due to its asymptomatic nature, screening is necessary for identification. Because screening of the total population is not cost effective, it is important to identify which risk factors for positivity characterize the key populations in which targeting of screening yields the highest numbers of HCV positives, and assess which of these key populations have remained hidden to current care. Laboratory registry data (2002-2008) were retrieved for all HCV tests (23,800) in the south of the Netherlands (adult population 500,000). Screening trends were tested using Poisson regression and chi-square tests. Risk factors for HCV positivity were assessed using a logistic regression. The hidden HCV-positive population was estimated by a capture-recapture approach. The number of tests increased over time (2,388 to 4,149, p<.01). Nevertheless, the positivity rate among those screened decreased between 2002 and 2008 (6.3% to 2.1%, p<.01). The population prevalence was estimated to be 0.49% (95%CI 0.41-0.59). Of all HCV-positive patients, 66% were hidden to current screening practices. Risk factors associated with positivity were low socio-economic status, male sex, and age between 36-55. In future screening 48% (95%CI 37-63) of total patients and 47% (95%CI 32-70) of hidden patients can be identified by targeting 9% (men with low socio-economic status, between 36-55 years old) of the total population. Although the current HCV screening policy increasingly addresses high-risk populations, it only reaches one third of positive patients. This study shows that combining easily identifiable demographic risk factors can be used to identify key populations as a likely target for effective HCV screening. We recommend strengthening screening among middle-aged man, living in low socio-economic neighborhoods.
    PLoS ONE 12/2012; 7(12):e51194. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0051194 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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