Working memory, processing speed, and set‐shifting in children with developmental coordination disorder and attention‐deficit–hyperactivity disorder

Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology (Impact Factor: 3.29). 08/2007; 49(9):678 - 683. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2007.00678.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT It has been suggested that the high levels of comorbidity between attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) may be attributed to a common underlying neurocognitive mechanism. This study assessed whether children with DCD and ADHD share deficits on tasks measuring working memory, set-shifting, and processing speed. A total of 195 children aged between 6 years 6 months and 14 years 1 month (mean 10y 4mo [SD 2y 2mo]) were included in this study. A control group (59 males, 79 females), a DCD group (12 males, six females), an ADHD-predominantly inattentive group (16 males, four females), and an ADHD-combined group (15 males, four females), were tested on three executive functioning tasks. Children with DCD were significantly slower on all tasks, supporting past evidence of a timing deficit in these children. With few exceptions, children with ADHD did not perform more poorly than control children. These findings demonstrate the importance of identifying children with motor deficits when examining tasks involving a timing component.

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    ABSTRACT: Deficits of cool executive function (EF) have been shown in children with motor problems (or Developmental Coordination Disorder – DCD), but little is known of hot EF in this group. Given some evidence of poor self-regulation in DCD, we predicted poorer performance on a measure of hot EF, the Hungry Donkey Task (HDT), relative to typically developing (TD) children. Participants were 14 children with DCD and 22 TD children aged between 6.5 and 12 years. The DCD group performed significantly worse than the TD group on a 100-trial version of the HDT, making more selections from disadvantageous options and less from advantageous ones. Within-group analyses showed that children with DCD had faster responses to disadvantageous options than to advantageous. These results suggest high sensitivity to immediate reward in DCD. This sensitivity may reflect a more generalized deficit in the ability to resist the rewarding aspects of emotionally significant stimuli.
    Cognitive Development 10/2014; 32:23–37. DOI:10.1016/j.cogdev.2014.06.002
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between motor coordination and visual working memory in children aged 5-11years. Participants were 18 children with movement difficulty and 41 control children, assessed at baseline and following an 18-month time period. The McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development provided a measure of motor skills and the CogState One-Back task was used to assess visual working memory. Multi-level mixed effects linear regressions were used to assess the relationship between fine motor skills, gross motor skills, and visual working memory. The results revealed that for children with movement difficulty, better fine motor skills at baseline significantly predicted greater One-Back accuracy and greater (i.e., faster) speed at 18-month follow-up. Conversely, fine motor skills at baseline did not predict One-Back accuracy and speed for control children. However, for both groups, greater One-Back accuracy at baseline predicted better fine and gross motor skills at follow-up. These findings have important implications for the assessment and treatment of children referred for motor difficulties and/or working memory difficulties.
    Human movement science 10/2013; 32(5). DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2013.07.014
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess executive function in children with developmental dyspraxia. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Inclusion criteria: children aged 8years to 12years 5months at the time of the study, diagnosed with developmental dyspraxia between January, 2008 and August, 2009 by a multidisciplinary team in one single center. ASSESSMENT TOOLS: (1) Paper-and-pencil neuropsychological and ecological tests to assess flexibility, planning, inhibition and prospective memory; (2) two questionnaires answered by parents; (3) the 'Children's Cooking Task' (CCT), an ecological task performed in a real environment (Chevignard et al., 2009 [15]). In this last test, children were compared to matched controls. Non-parametric statistical tests were used. RESULTS: Thirteen patients participated in the study (11 boys-2 girls; mean age 10.3years [SD=1.3]). Neuropsychological tests highlighted planning and inhibition disorders, but no impaired flexibility. For more than half of the children, the questionnaires indicated impaired executive functions in daily life tasks. Finally, patients showed a significantly increased rate of errors during the CCT, compared with the control group (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Overall results suggest that some children diagnosed with developmental dyspraxia also exhibit executive function disorders. Ecological tests seem more sensitive for identifying executive function disorders than conventional tests.
    Annals of physical and rehabilitation medicine 03/2013; 56(4). DOI:10.1016/

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