Blood‐derived biomaterials: fibrin sealant, platelet gel and platelet fibrin glue

ISBT Science Series 02/2009; 4(1):136 - 142. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-2824.2009.01222.x

ABSTRACT Blood-derived biomaterials include fibrin sealant (FS) (also called fibrin glue), platelet gel (PG), and platelet fibrin glue. They are used in many surgical fields because of their functional properties and unique physical advantages compared to synthetic products. FS can be made industrially by the fractionation of large plasma pools, or from single plasma donations. Thanks to a high content in fibrinogen, FS exhibits, after activation by thrombin and formation of a strong fibrin clot, tissue sealing and haemostatic properties. PG and platelet fibrin glue are made from single blood donations (platelet concentrates combined or not with cryoprecipitate). Owing to their richness in platelet, PG and PFG can release, upon thrombin activation, a myriad of growth factors that can stimulate cell growth and differentiation, generating much interest for hard and soft tissues regeneration and healing, as well as, increasingly, cell therapy protocols to replace fetal bovine serum. Blood-derived biomaterials have the advantages, over synthetic glues and other biomaterials, of being physiologically compatible with human tissues, and of not inducing tissue necrosis or other tissue reactions. They can be readily colonized by cells and are totally biodegradable in a matter of days to weeks. These blood-derived biomaterials are used increasingly as tissue engineering tools, allowing surgeons to influence and improve the in vitro or in vivo cellular environment to enhance the success of tissue grafting. We review here the three main types of biomaterials that can be made from human blood and describe their biochemical and physiological properties as well as their clinical applications.

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May 23, 2014