Blood‐derived biomaterials: fibrin sealant, platelet gel and platelet fibrin glue

ISBT Science Series 02/2009; 4(1):136 - 142. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-2824.2009.01222.x

ABSTRACT Blood-derived biomaterials include fibrin sealant (FS) (also called fibrin glue), platelet gel (PG), and platelet fibrin glue. They are used in many surgical fields because of their functional properties and unique physical advantages compared to synthetic products. FS can be made industrially by the fractionation of large plasma pools, or from single plasma donations. Thanks to a high content in fibrinogen, FS exhibits, after activation by thrombin and formation of a strong fibrin clot, tissue sealing and haemostatic properties. PG and platelet fibrin glue are made from single blood donations (platelet concentrates combined or not with cryoprecipitate). Owing to their richness in platelet, PG and PFG can release, upon thrombin activation, a myriad of growth factors that can stimulate cell growth and differentiation, generating much interest for hard and soft tissues regeneration and healing, as well as, increasingly, cell therapy protocols to replace fetal bovine serum. Blood-derived biomaterials have the advantages, over synthetic glues and other biomaterials, of being physiologically compatible with human tissues, and of not inducing tissue necrosis or other tissue reactions. They can be readily colonized by cells and are totally biodegradable in a matter of days to weeks. These blood-derived biomaterials are used increasingly as tissue engineering tools, allowing surgeons to influence and improve the in vitro or in vivo cellular environment to enhance the success of tissue grafting. We review here the three main types of biomaterials that can be made from human blood and describe their biochemical and physiological properties as well as their clinical applications.

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    ABSTRACT: We have evaluated the capacity of two human blood fractions to substitute for FBS as growth medium supplement for human and animal cell cultures. Non-anticoagulated blood from volunteer donors (N = 13) was centrifuged to isolate a supernatant serum (SS) and a platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) clot which was squeezed to extract the releasate (PRFR). Both materials were characterized for the content in PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, VEGF, bFGF, EGF, IGF, total protein, albumin, IgG, IgM IgA, fibrinogen, cholesterol, triglycerides, various chemistry analytes and hemoglobin. Cell growth promoting activity of pooled SS and PRFR at 1, 5, and 10% in growth medium was evaluated over 7 days using human (HEK293, MG-63) and animal (SIRC, 3T3) cell lines and two human primary cultures (gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligaments). Viable cell count was compared to that in cultures in FBS free-medium and 10% FBS supplement. SS and PRFR at 1-10% stimulated cell growth significantly more than FBS-free medium and in a way similar to 10% FBS in all cultures apart from 3T3. These two human blood-derived fibrin releasates are equally efficient to substitute for FBS as supplement for cell cultures and could be useful for specialized applications in regenerative medicine, dentistry and oral implantology, or cell therapy.
    Biologicals 01/2012; 40(1):21-30. · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Platelet gels (PG) are new topical single-donor blood products which are attracting great interest in regenerative medicine. They are obtained by mixing a platelet-rich plasma fraction with thrombin to generate a fibrin gel enriched in platelet growth factors (GF). The type of thrombin preparation may affect PG reproducibility. We have determined the impact of 14.6% (v/v) ethanol-stabilized thrombin (EHT) on the release of GF by platelets. Various ratios of EHT and platelet concentrates were mixed to obtain from 2.43 to 7.96% ethanol concentration. Platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB), transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1), vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were assessed at 5, 120, and 300 min after PG formation. Protein profiles of thrombin and PG releasates were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The amount of PDGF-AB, TGF-ß1, and VEGF released per platelet decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increasing ethanol concentrations but, however, not that of EGF. IGF-1 content was stable, consistent with its presence mostly in plasma. SDS-PAGE indicated that ethanol did not affect fibrin formation. In conclusion, ethanol has a significant impact on the amount of GF released by platelets and should be strictly controlled to standardize PG and optimize clinical benefits.
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May 23, 2014