Article

Effects of Unemployment on Health in a Community Survey: Main, Modifying, and Mediating Effects

University of Michigan
Journal of Social Issues (Impact Factor: 1.96). 12/1987; 44(4):69 - 85. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.1988.tb02092.x

ABSTRACT Results from a community survey in a sample of high-unemployment census tracts in southeastern Michigan showed significant elevations of depression, anxiety, somatization, and self-reported physical illness among the currently unemployed. These adverse effects were largely reversed by reemployment. Subsequent analyses documented modifying effects of social support, self-concept, and coping. We also found two mediating processes that account for the overall effects of current unemployment: (a) the intervening effects of financial strain, and (b) an influence of unemployment in creating heightened vulnerability to other stressful life events. The implications of these results for the design and implementation of preventive interventions are briefly discussed.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
329 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study explored the impact of couple interaction behaviors on the relationship between economic stress and marital instability. The study results showed that economic satisfaction and economic pressure greatly influenced the marital instability of married males and females. However, the interaction behaviors of couples tended to have a stronger impact on marital instability than economic stress. In other words, perceived spouse support and perceived spouse hostility had a significant impact on marital instability, with perceived spouse hostility being the more damaging of the two. The study also showed that there were sender differences regarding the impact of couple interaction behaviors on marital instability and economic stress. For married males, economic satisfaction as well as couple interactions influenced significantly on their marital instability. For females the impact of couple interactions on their marital instability tended to be more salient. On the whole, the results of the interaction effects between economic stress and couple interaction behaviors on marital instability did not appear significant, except in the case of females' perceived spouse hostility and its effect on marital instability.
    Journal of Korean Home Management Association. 01/2007; 25(1).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gender, financial hardship, low education and vulnerability to stress, were regressed on a latent dependent variable representing covariances of three mitogen tests measuring immune response in the form of lymphocyte proliferation (CON-A, PHA, and PWM). In addition to the four main effects, six interaction terms involving all possible two-way combinations of the four main variables were regressed on the dependent variable. While financial strain and vulnerability exert significant negative main effects on immune response as anticipated, these variables interact with one another and with gender to produce complex conditional relationships. The interaction between low education and male gender produces a negative effect on immune response, while financial hardship and vulnerability to stress interact to produce positive effects on immune response. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Stress Medicine 04/2000; 16(3).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) treated with oral levodopa have a higher prevalence of chronic, prevalently sensory, usually mild axonal polyneuropathy (PNP). Several studies showed a positive association among PNP, cumulative levodopa dosage, low serum B12 and high-homocysteine and methylmalonic acid level. Anecdotal severe acute or subacute PNPs thought to be Guillain-Barré syndrome have been reported in patients receiving continuous intraduodenal infusion of levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG). We report an additional acute case and by a systematic literature search we also reviewed the clinical and laboratory features of 13 other acute and 21 subacute PNP cases occurring during LCIG treatment. In series with at least nine patients, the mean frequency of acute and subacute PNP is 13.6% and the mortality rate at 6 months in acute cases is 14%. The great majority of PNP cases displayed axonal sensory-motor and reduced vitamin B12 levels, and alterations of metabolites of 1-carbon pathway were found in most patients. We discuss the possible role of high-levodopa dosage, vitamin B12, B6 and folate deficiency and accumulation of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid in the pathogenesis to conclude that there is enough, although circumstantial, evidence that alterations of 1-carbon pathway are implicated also in acute and subacute PNP during LCIG usage. There is no solid proof for a dysimmune pathogenesis and in our opinion acute, subacute and chronic PNP, either after oral levodopa or LCIG, represent a continuum. Finally, we propose recommendations for prevention and management of PNP occurring during LCIG treatment.
    Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 08/2014; · 5.58 Impact Factor