Robust optimal control of polymorphic transformation in batch crystallization

AIChE Journal (Impact Factor: 2.58). 08/2007; 53(10):2643 - 2650. DOI: 10.1002/aic.11266

ABSTRACT One of the most important problems that can arise in the development of a pharmaceutical crystallization process is the control of polymorphism, in which there exist different crystal forms for the same chemical compound. Different polymorphs can have very different properties, such as bioavailability, which motivates the design of controlled processes to ensure consistent production of the desired polymorph to produce reliable therapeutic benefits upon delivery. The optimal batch control of the polymorphic transformation of L-glutamic acid from the metastable α-form to the stable β-form is studied, with the goal of optimizing batch productivity, while providing robustness to variations in the physicochemical parameters that can occur in practice due to variations in contaminant profiles in the feedstocks. A nonlinear state feedback controller designed to follow an optimal setpoint trajectory defined in the crystallization phase diagram simultaneously provided high-batch productivity and robustness, in contrast to optimal temperature control strategies that were either nonrobust or resulted in long-batch times. The results motivate the incorporation of the proposed approach into the design of operating procedures for polymorphic batch crystallizations. © 2007 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2007

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this work, a rapid and selective method was successfully developed using the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MMIP) as sorbent for the extraction of β-lactam antibiotics (BLAs) from milk samples. The MMIP has been prepared using penicillin V potassium (PENV) as template molecule, methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as crosslinking agent and Fe(3)O(4) magnetite as magnetic component. The experimental results showed that the MMIP had high affinity and selectivity toward PENV and other structurally related BLAs. The extraction process was carried out in a single step by mixing the extraction solvent, MMIPs and milk samples under ultrasonic action. When the extraction was completed, the MMIPs adsorbing the analytes were separated from the sample matrix by an external magnet. The analytes eluted from the MMIP were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. For achieving optimal preconcentration and reducing non-specific interactions, various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency such as extraction mode, extraction solvent, the amount of MMIPs, extraction time, washing solution and eluting solution were comprehensively evaluated. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits of BLAs are in the range of 1.6-2.8 ng mL(-1). The relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day ranging from 3.2% to 8.3% and from 3.6% to 9.8% are obtained, respectively. The method was applied to determine BLAs including PENV, amoxicillin and oxacillin in five milk samples from different provenances. The recoveries of BLAs in these samples from 71.6% to 90.7% are obtained.
    Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences 12/2010; 878(32):3421-6. · 2.78 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The academic literature on and industrial practice of control of solution crystallization processes have seen major advances in the past 15 years that have been enabled by progress in in-situ real-time sensor technologies and driven primarily by needs in the pharmaceutical industry for improved and more consistent quality of drug crystals. These advances include the accurate measurement of solution concentrations and crystal characteristics as well as the first-principles modeling and robust model-based and model-free feedback control of crystal size and polymorphic identity. Research opportunities are described in model-free controller design, new crystallizer designs with enhanced control of crystal size distribution, strategies for the robust control of crystal shape, and interconnected crystallization systems for multicomponent crystallization.
    Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering 03/2012; 3:55-75. · 7.51 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This review discusses important research developments and arising challenges in the field of industrial crystallization with an emphasis on recent problems. The most relevant areas of research have been identified. These are the prediction of phase diagrams; the prediction of effects of impurities and additives; the design of fluid dynamics; the process control with process analytical technologies (PAT) tools; the polymorph and solvate screening; the stabilization of non-stable phases; and the product design. The potential of industrial crystallization in various areas is outlined and discussed with particular reference to the product quality, process design, and control. On this basis, possible future directions for research and development have been pointed out to highlight the importance of crystallization as an outstanding technique for separation, purification as well as for product design.
    Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering. 7(1).

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 22, 2014