[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phospholipids are essential components of all biological membranes. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) and Phosphatidylserine (PS) are Phosphatidyl-phospholipids that are required for normal cellular structure and function. The participation in physical activity often challenges a variety of physiological systems; consequently, the ability to maintain normal cellular function during activity can determine sporting performance. The participation in prolonged intense exercise has been shown to reduce circulatory choline concentrations in some individuals. As choline is a pre-cursor to the neurotransmitter Acetylcholine, this finding has encouraged researchers to investigate the hypothesis that supplementation with PC (or choline salts) could enhance sporting performance. Although the available data that evaluates the effects of PC supplementation on performance are equivocal, acute oral supplementation with PC (~0.2 g PC per kg body mass) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a variety of sporting activities where exercise has depleted circulatory choline concentrations. Short term oral supplementation with soy-derived PS (S-PS) has been reported to attenuate circulating cortisol concentrations, improve perceived well-being, and reduce perceived muscle soreness after exercise. More recently, short term oral supplementation (750 mg per day of S-PS for 10 days) has been demonstrated to improve exercise capacity during high intensity cycling and tended to increase performance during intermittent running. Although more research is warranted to determine minimum dietary Phospholipid requirements for optimal sporting performance, these findings suggest that some participants might benefit from dietary interventions that increase the intakes of PC and PS.
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 02/2007; 4:5. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Essential phospholipids (EPL) contain a highly purified extract of polyenylphosphatidylcholine (PPC) molecules from soybean. The main active ingredient is 1,2-dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC), which differentiates it from other phospholipids, lecithins, or extracts from other sources. Although EPLis widely used in liver diseases of various origins, its mode of action and pharmacological and clinical evidence of its efficacy have not yet been concisely reviewed. This paper critically summarizes experimental and clinical results. With regard to in-vitro and animal tests, EPL influenced membrane-dependent cellular functions and showed anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, apoptosis-modulating, regenerative, membrane-repairing and -protective, cell-signaling and receptor-influencing, as well as lipid-regulating effects in intoxication models with chemicals or drugs. Clinical studies, primarily from European and Asian countries, have shown improvement in subjective symptoms; clinical, biochemical and imaging findings; and histology in liver indications such as fatty liver of different origin, drug hepatotoxicity, and adjuvant in chronic viral hepatitis and hepatic coma. The available studies characterize EPL as evidence-based medicine, although further long-term controlled clinical trials are required to precisely determine its benefit for alleviating symptoms, improving well-being, inducing histological changes and slowing the progression of liver disease. EPL-related relevant side effects were not observed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The medicine Lipostabil N has been in widespread use in Europe since 2002 by doctors working in the field of esthetics to achieve a reduction in the volume of smaller fat deposits by means of injections into the subcutaneous fatty tissue. The lipases released from the adipocytes by means of phosphatidylcholine produce a local breakdown of fat that is then discharged over the liver and metabolized via beta-oxidation. The medicine has been authorized for intravenous use in the prophylaxis and therapy of fat embolisms and liver diseases.
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology 01/2006; 4(4):308-13. · 0.87 Impact Factor
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