Callosal Tissue Loss in Multiple System Atrophy-A One-Year Follow-Up Study

Department for Clinical Engineering, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway
Movement Disorders (Impact Factor: 5.68). 11/2010; 25(15):2613 - 2620. DOI: 10.1002/mds.23318
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disease not only affecting the basal ganglia, brainstem, cerebellum, and intermediolateral cell columns of the spinal cord but also the cerebral cortex. Clinically, cerebellar (MSA-C) and parkinsonian variants of MSA (MSA-P) are distinguished. We investigated 14 MSA patients (10 MSA-C, 4 MSA-P, men: 7, women: 7; age: 61.1 ± 3.3 years) and 14 matched controls (men: 7, women: 7; age: 58.6 ± 5.1 years) with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to analyze gray and white matter differences both at baseline and at follow-up, 1 year later. Baseline comparisons between patients and controls confirmed significantly less gray matter in MSA in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex, and significantly less white matter in the cerebellar peduncles and brainstem. Comparisons of tissue-loss profiles (i.e., baseline versus follow-up) between patients and controls, revealed white matter reduction in MSA along the middle cerebellar peduncles, reflecting degeneration of the ponto-cerebellar tract as a particularly prominent and progressive morphological alteration in MSA. Comparisons between baseline and follow-up, separately performed in patients and controls, revealed additional white matter reduction in MSA along the corpus callosum at follow-up. This was replicated through additional shape-based analyses indicating a reduced callosal thickness in the anterior and posterior midbody, extending posteriorly into the isthmus. Callosal atrophy may possibly reflect a disease-specific pattern of neurodegeneration and cortical atrophy, fitting well with the predominant impairment of motor functions in the MSA patients. © 2010 Movement Disorder Society

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Available from: Paul Thompson, Sep 28, 2015
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    • "However, it was difficult to select data only for pathologically confirmed patients, and the diagnosis in this study was clinically evaluated by an experienced neurologist based on consensus criteria. Third, we failed to detect the gray matter volume loss of the substantia nigra as well as in previous VBM studies, although the neuronal loss of substantia nigra is a hallmark of MSA-P (Mamata et al., 2002; Minnerop et al., 2010; Tir et al., 2009). Even though the software used for the analysis and the evaluation of spatial resolution have greatly improved, the segmentation of MRIs of nuclei located in brainstem remains a weakness. "
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    ABSTRACT: In multiple system atrophy with predominant parkinsonism (MSA-P), several voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have revealed gray matter loss; however, the white matter volume changes have been rarely reported. We investigated the volume changes of white matter as well as gray matter by VBM. A retrospective MRI study was performed in 20 patients with MSA-P and 30 age-matched healthy controls. We applied VBM with statistical parametric mapping (SPM8) plus diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) to explore the regional atrophy of gray and white matter in all of the MSA-P patients, 14 patients with left-side dominant and 6 patients with right-side dominant onset as compared to controls. In all of the MSA-P patients, VBM revealed a significant volume reduction of gray matter in the bilateral putamina, cerebellums and dorsal midbrain. White matter loss was located in bilateral globus pallidi, external capsules extending to the midbrain, right subcortical to precentral area through internal capsule, the pons, bilateral middle cerebellar peduncles and left cerebellum. In left-side dominant MSA-P patients, the gray and white matter volume loss was detected predominantly on the right side and vice versa in right-side dominant MSA-P patients. A correlation with disease duration and severity was not detected. VBM using SPM8 plus DARTEL detected significant volume loss not only in the gray but also in the white matter of the area affected by MSA-P.
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