Reproductive phenology in three Genisteae (Fabaceae) shrub species of the W Mediterranean Region
ABSTRACT We studied the flower duration, the phenology of flowering and fruiting, and flower, fruit, and seed production in three Genisteae shrub species of the W Mediterranean Region: Cytisus multiflorus, C. striatus, and Retama sphaerocarpa. Flower duration was negatively correlated with temperature, and in the case of C. striatus it was also influenced by pollination. In Cytisus multiflorus, which flowers during winter in the population studied, two floral morphs were recognized differentiated by flower size, phenological pattern, and production of the reproductive organs: morph LF (large flowers) and morph SF (small flowers). The former is earlier in phenology but its reproductive success is less than the second since it not only produces significantly fewer flowers/plant, but also a smaller crop of fruit and seeds. The flowering of the LF morph lasted some three months and of the SF morph 11 weeks. The winter-spring flowering C. striatus, with a four month duration of flowering time, is sympatric with C. multiflorus and their flowering periods overlap, but the former is more successful reproductively. Retama sphaerocarpa is clearly spring flowering, with an extremely short duration of flowering (c. 6.5 weeks), but, unlike the other two species which disperse their seeds in the same season in which they are produced, it staggers the dispersal of its diaspores over more than one year. Despite the great flower per plant production, especially in Retama sphaerocarpa, and of the number of fruit initiated, the final crop of fruit and seed/plant is low in the three species (C. multiflorus: fruit 8.40% and seeds 1.96%; C. striatus: fruit 13.09% and seeds 4.12%; Retama sphaerocarpa: fruit 5.65% and seeds 1.33%).
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ABSTRACT: We studied the biology and floral rewards of 34 taxa ofGenisteae from the SW of Europe. Most of the floral attributes show a statistically significant direct relationship. Anther biomass of the lower whorl (lW) is significantly lower than that of the upper whorl (uW), and the ratio of the two (Rv) differs among the taxa. All taxa are polliniferous, and Retama sphaerocarpa also secretes nectar. They can be considered xenogamous or facultative xenogams on the basis of their high pollen/ovule (P/O) ratios. Three principal mechanisms of pollen releasing are identified in this tribe: valvular, pump and explosive; the latter comprises specialized and nonspecialized subtypes. Pollination is sternotribic except in the specialized explosive mechanism, in which it is noto-sternotribic. Thus some pollen serves as food (pollen from the uW, which adheres to the ventral surface of the insect) and part of the pollen fulfils a polliniferous function (pollen from the lW, which adheres to the dorsal surface). Species that use a pump mechanism have very low Rv values (Rv=0.08–0.26); species with valvular or nonspecialized explosive mechanisms have Rv values between 0.24 and 0.58; those with a specialized mechanism of pollen presentation have high Rv values (0.6–0.76). In contrast to expectations, the highest P/O ratios appear in the specialized explosive system, which allows a single visit from the insect.Plant Systematics and Evolution 02/1999; 216(1):23-47. · 1.31 Impact Factor
Article: Longevity of Individual Flowers11/2003; 16:15-37.
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ABSTRACT: A study of a number of reproductive traits in two sympatric species of Pedicularis in northern Swedish Lapland, the subarctic-alpine P lapponica and the artic P hursuta, revealed that the life-history strategies of the two species differ profoundly High fruit set and low seed abortion rate, as m P hursuta, is common in arctic plants in late-thawing habitats and represents a case of extreme adversity selection rather than an indication of a ruderal life-history strategy Pedicularis lapponica, on the other hand, is a typical K-strategist (or stress-tolerator) requiring a longer period of growth for optimal reproduction Occuring at both low and high altitudes in the area, P lapponica tends to increase in self-compatibility with altitude, which is interpreted as an adaptation to lower pollinator visitation frequency in arctic environments The variation in length of the protruding part of the style in P lapponica is shown to be correlated with exposure to light Predispersal seed predation is severe m P lapponica at low altitudes, where the capsules are attacked by fly and moth larvae At high altitudes, a minor proportion of the capsules of P lapponica experience predation and only from flies, while P hursuta is completely unpredatedEcography 06/2006; 16(2):154 - 166. · 5.12 Impact Factor