Reproductive phenology in three Genisteae (Fabaceae) shrub species of the W Mediterranean Region
ABSTRACT We studied the flower duration, the phenology of flowering and fruiting, and flower, fruit, and seed production in three Genisteae shrub species of the W Mediterranean Region: Cytisus multiflorus, C. striatus, and Retama sphaerocarpa. Flower duration was negatively correlated with temperature, and in the case of C. striatus it was also influenced by pollination. In Cytisus multiflorus, which flowers during winter in the population studied, two floral morphs were recognized differentiated by flower size, phenological pattern, and production of the reproductive organs: morph LF (large flowers) and morph SF (small flowers). The former is earlier in phenology but its reproductive success is less than the second since it not only produces significantly fewer flowers/plant, but also a smaller crop of fruit and seeds. The flowering of the LF morph lasted some three months and of the SF morph 11 weeks. The winter-spring flowering C. striatus, with a four month duration of flowering time, is sympatric with C. multiflorus and their flowering periods overlap, but the former is more successful reproductively. Retama sphaerocarpa is clearly spring flowering, with an extremely short duration of flowering (c. 6.5 weeks), but, unlike the other two species which disperse their seeds in the same season in which they are produced, it staggers the dispersal of its diaspores over more than one year. Despite the great flower per plant production, especially in Retama sphaerocarpa, and of the number of fruit initiated, the final crop of fruit and seed/plant is low in the three species (C. multiflorus: fruit 8.40% and seeds 1.96%; C. striatus: fruit 13.09% and seeds 4.12%; Retama sphaerocarpa: fruit 5.65% and seeds 1.33%).
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ABSTRACT: The phenolic composition of the ethanolic extract obtained from the flowers of the medicinal plant Cytisus multiflorus has been elucidated by high performance liquid chromatography, electrospray mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. The extract was mainly composed of flavones, including the common chrysin, orientin, luteolin-5-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin and apigenin-7-O-glucoside, which appeared as minor components. The major flavone in the extract was chrysin-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, and it also contained moderate amounts of a dihydroxyflavone isomer of chrysin, as well as of 2″-O-pentosyl-6-C-hexosyl-luteolin, 2″-O-pentosyl-8-C-hexosyl-luteolin and 6″-O-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaroyl)-2″-O-pentosyl-C-hexosyl-apigenin, which are not commonly found in the Fabaceae family. Other novel phenolic compounds found in the ethanolic extract of C. multiflorus comprised the flavones 2″-O-pentosyl-6-C-hexosyl-apigenin, 2″-O-pentosyl-8-C-hexosyl-apigenin and 6″-O-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaroyl)-2″-O-pentosyl-C-hexosyl-luteolin. The assessment of the biological activities of the main compounds of this extract are now keen, in order to determine their relevance in the beneficial properties of the plant.Food Chemistry. 03/2012; 131(2):652–659.
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ABSTRACT: Plant phenological studies in the Mediterranean have traditionally focused on the limits that summer drought exerts over plant seasonal behaviour. However, Mediterranean areas also occur across extensive regions under cooler climates. Here, we analyse phenological data of Mediterranean woody species from winter-cold sites to address the following questions: what is the most limiting period of the year for phenological development? How, and how synchronously, do different phenophases adjust to the bimodal limitation of summer drought and winter cold? How ample is the suit of phenological strategies that are successful for Mediterranean phanaerophytes from cool areas?We selected 11 diverse species of Mediterranean deciduous and evergreen phanaerophytes, and located one representative population per species in a region under continental Mediterranean climate. Vegetative growth, leaf shedding, flower bud formation, flowering, fruiting, and seed dispersal were monitored during 2 years per species, on a monthly basis. Then, we elaborated phenological diagrams, and developed indexes of phenophase overlap, of length of the phenological cycle, of phenological synchrony at the phenophase and population levels, and of climate suitability for each phenophase.Winter was clearly the most inactive period for this group of species. Vegetative growth occurred in the most suitable time of the year for plant growth, while reproductive phenophases occurred more spread along the year. Phenological synchrony was the highest for flowering, and was lower for vegetative phenophases and fruit growth. Our set of species was diverse in terms of degree of overlap among vegetative and reproductive phenophases, and also in terms of the length of the phenological cycle as a whole.In conclusion, we identified which are the climatic requirements for each phenophase to occur. Also, we recognized a series of continuous traits that tend to co-vary among species as a phenological syndrome: from those species that overlap phenophases, show short phenological cycles, and high degree of phenological synchrony to those with sequencing of phenophases, long phenological cycles, and low within-population synchrony.Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants. 01/2010;
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ABSTRACT: A study of the flowering and fruiting phenology was undertaken for twenty species of the xerochamaephytic communities that characterize the mountain-crest areas of the island of Majorca (Balearic Islands, Spain). The flowering period of the species considered extends from March to November, with the majority flowering during the spring and early summer, and a peak in June. The flowering duration at the species level is longest for Rosmarinus officinalis var. palaui (which flowered in spring and autumn) and was shortest for Genista majorica and Rubia balearica. In this community, three strategies were observed that may serve to reduce interspecific competition between pollinators: 1) pollination specialization of white-pink flowers; 2) high diversification of yellow flower pollinators; and 3) the divergence in flowering time of less common flower colours. The flowering duration of individual plants and whole populations are positively correlated, which may indicate that individuals of each population optimize the time which is phenologically useful. The flowering of the spiny cushion species of the community is characterized by a smaller intraspecific overlap in comparison to the other species examined.Plant Ecology 01/2004; 174(2):295-305. · 1.53 Impact Factor