Introgression of disease resistance genes from Arachis kempff‐mercadoi into cultivated groundnut

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, 502 324, Patancheru; Andhra Pradesh, India
Plant Breeding (Impact Factor: 1.18). 11/2004; 123(6):573 - 576. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0523.2004.01036.x

ABSTRACT Arachis kempff-mercadoi is a wild species from the section Arachis. All kempff-mercadoi accessions originate from the Santa Cruz province of Bolivia and they represent Arachis species with the A genome. From molecular analysis it was found that although cultivated A. hypogaea is made up of A and B genomes, A. kempff-mercadoi may not be as closely related to it as are some of the other A genome species. Arachis kempff-mercadoi is of interest because it has multiple disease resistance. It was crossed with a Spanish A. hypogaea cultivar which is susceptible to foliar diseases and to the insect pest Spodoptera litura. The success rate of the cross A. hypogaea (2n = 40) ×A. kempff-mercadoi (2n = 20) was very low, but it could be increased by culturing immature seeds in vitro. Although the hybrids were triploids, a few fertile pollen grains were obtained due to the formation of restitution nuclei in the F1 plants. Interspecific derivatives at the BC2F2 generation were scored for early leaf spot, late leaf spot and to Spodoptera damage. Screening results showed that 29% of the derivatives had both early and late leaf spot resistance and that less than 5% of the derivatives had resistance to both the foliar diseases and to Spodoptera.

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    ABSTRACT: The chromosome complements of 12 taxa in section Arachis were karyotypically and meiotically analysed. In taxa with 2n=20 the arm ratio of the respective pair of chromosomes was taken as an independent quantitative character and statistically analysed by Mahalanobis D(2). Two clusters were formed, one represented solely by A. batizocoi and the other consisting of the remaining 11 taxa. This grouping was confirmed by canonical analysis. In the larger group of species, A villosa and A. correntina were closely related karyotypically and on D(2) distance, while A. cardenasii forms a distinct subgroup. A. cardenasii lacks the short "A" chromosome recorded in other species of this group, and A. batizocoi is no longer the only species to have a pair of chromosomes with a secondary constriction. The taxa with 2n=40, A. monticola and A. hypogaea, are karyotypically very similar, though there is a difference in the number of chromosome pairs with a secondary constriction. On the basis of karyomorphological affinity, especially in relation to marker chromosomes, A. cardenasii is probably one of the ancestors of the tetraploid species studied.
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    ABSTRACT: Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) was used to establish the genetic relationships among 20 species from seven of the nine sections of genus Arachis. The level of polymorphism among nine accessions of the cultivated peanut, A. hypogaea L., was also evaluated. Three combinations of primers were used to amplify the AFLPs. The fragments were separated in 6% denaturing acrylamide gels. A total of 408 fragments were analyzed. An average of 135.3 fragments per primer combination were scored, and the largest number of fragments was 169 using primer combination Eco RI - ACC / Mse I - CTG, while the lowest was 108, with Eco RI - ACT / Mse I - CTT. In general, the genetic relationships established using AFLPs agreed with the classification established using morphology and crossability data. The results indicated that AFLPs are good markers for establishing the relationships among Arachis species. The polymorphism detected in A. hypogaea by this method was higher than the one found with other markers, like RAPDs and RFLPs. However, our data suggest that the polymorphism detected be using AFLP with only three primer combinations is still too low to be used for any kind of genetic study in this species.
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