Beyond Trauma‐Focused Psychiatric Epidemiology: Bridging Research and Practice With War‐Affected Populations

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry (Impact Factor: 1.36). 09/2006; 76(4):409 - 422. DOI: 10.1037/0002-9432.76.4.409
Source: PubMed


This article examines the centrality of trauma-focused psychiatric epidemiology (TFPE) in research with war-affected populations. The authors question the utility of the dominant focus on posttraumatic stress disorder and other disorders of Western psychiatry, and they identify a set of critical research foci related to mental health work with communities affected by political violence. Core assumptions of TFPE and its roots in logical positivism and the biomedical model of contemporary psychiatry are explored. The authors suggest that an alternative framework—social constructivism—can serve as a bridge between researchers and practitioners by helping to refocus research efforts in ways that are conceptually and methodologically more attuned to the needs of war-affected communities and those working to address their mental health needs.

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    • "Two studies used a mixed method design [44,45] (Table 2). The most common practice settings identified were primary healthcare (n = 10) [42,44,53,59-62,64,65,82], followed by post-graduate educational settings (n = 7) [39-41,43,45,65,81], and mental health clinical environments (n = 5) [50,52,58,78,80] (Table 3). Nursing was the professional group most frequently targeted in the papers (20 of 35 included studies), alone [42,43,47,53,55,60-62,77], or along with physicians [64,82], patients [44], or interdisciplinary teams [38,39,48,51,57,65,76,79]. Psychologists/psychiatrists was another identified group (n = 5) [50,52,58,78,80]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Use of theory is essential for advancing the science of knowledge translation (KT) and for increasing the likelihood that KT interventions will be successful in reducing existing research-practice gaps in health care. As a sociological theory of knowledge, social constructivist theory may be useful for informing the design and evaluation of KT interventions. As such, this scoping review explored the extent to which social constructivist theory has been applied in the KT literature for healthcare professionals. Methods Searches were conducted in six databases: Ovid MEDLINE (1948 – May 16, 2011), Ovid EMBASE, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycInfo, and AMED. Inclusion criteria were: publications from all health professions, research methodologies, as well as conceptual and theoretical papers related to KT. To be included in the review, key words such as constructivism, social constructivism, or social constructivist theories had to be included within the title or abstract. Papers that discussed the use of social constructivist theories in the context of undergraduate learning in academic settings were excluded from the review. An analytical framework of quantitative (numerical) and thematic analysis was used to examine and combine study findings. Results Of the 514 articles screened, 35 papers published between 1992 and 2011 were deemed eligible and included in the review. This review indicated that use of social constructivist theory in the KT literature was limited and haphazard. The lack of justification for the use of theory continues to represent a shortcoming of the papers reviewed. Potential applications and relevance of social constructivist theory in KT in general and in the specific studies were not made explicit in most papers. For the acquisition, expression and application of knowledge in practice, there was emphasis on how the social constructivist theory supports clinicians in expressing this knowledge in their professional interactions. Conclusions This scoping review was the first to examine use of social constructivism in KT studies. While the links between social constructivism and KT have not been fully explored, the Knowledge to Action framework has strong constructivist underpinnings that can be used in moving forward within the broader KT enterprise.
    Implementation Science 05/2014; 9(1):54. DOI:10.1186/1748-5908-9-54 · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    • "At the moment, our model is limited by the practical constraints that emerge in crisis and emergency contexts and by the particular isolation of Israeli/Palestinian society; it is still not sufficiently attentive to the involvement of the community, which remains, in our opinion, one of the main protective factors in the development of post-traumatic reactions (Weine et al., 2006). One future development of the model could be to increasingly engage community representatives, such as religious leaders, teachers and other key figures, in the intervention, along with the family (Miller et al., 2006). As things currently stand in the specific context in which our intervention was tested, the solidarity of the Palestinian community living inside the state of Israel is jeopardised by the fragmented fabric of Arab society and by the cultural impoverishment imposed by the Zionist institutions. "
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    British Journal of Guidance and Counselling 04/2014; DOI:10.1080/03069885.2014.907868 · 0.75 Impact Factor
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    • "Specifically, the purpose of this study was to (a) identify the premigration, transit, and resettlement stressors faced by Somali and Oromo refugees using qualitative and quantitative methods, (b) examine the relationship between gender, ethnicity, age, and years in the United States and stress exposure and PTSD symptoms, and (c) investigate the relations between event exposure and PTSD symptoms concurrently and longitudinally. Although a more comprehensive assessment of mental health concerns beyond PTSD symptoms has been recommended in the literature (e.g., Miller et al., 2006; Porter & Haslam, 2005), given the bounds of the available data, the present study focuses on relationships between stressor exposure and PTSD symptoms only. Our research questions and hypotheses were as follows. "
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