ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF BENE HULL OIL COMPARED WITH SESAME AND RICE BRAN OILS DURING THE FRYING PROCESS OF SUNFLOWER OIL
ABSTRACT The antioxidant activity of Bene hull oil (BHO) was compared with that of sesame oil (SEO) and rice bran oil (RBO) during the frying process of sunflower oil (SFO) at 180C. The ratio between the polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids and calculated oxidizability were statistically greater for the SFO (4.26 and 6.48, respectively), followed by the SEO (3.18 and 6.27, respectively), RBO (1.53 and 4.37, respectively) and BHO (0.37 and 1.67, respectively). Peroxide and acid values of the oils studied ranged from 0.34 to 3.07 mEq/kg and from 0.19 to 5.20 mg/g, respectively. Total tocopherols and phenolics contents of the SEO (1093.28 and 1042.43 mg/kg, respectively) were significantly higher than those of the SFO (740.27 and 38.68 mg/kg, respectively), BHO (573.41 and 276.67 mg/kg, respectively), and RBO (832.98 and 67.98 mg/kg, respectively). In total, based on the conjugated diene value and carbonyl value measurements during the frying process, the BHO showed an antioxidant activity higher than those of the SEO and RBO at the level of 2%, and the levels higher than 2% of the antioxidative oils caused to decrease the oxidative stability of the SFO, indicating the pro-oxidant effect of the oils added at these levels.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONSThis research introduces the oil obtained from the hull of Bene, a species of pistachio growing wild in Iran, as a new source of vegetable oil for human nutrition with antioxidant activity significantly higher than sesame and rice bran oils, which are considered as very stable and antioxidative vegetable oils because of the presence of very strong indigenous antioxidants, during the frying process.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pistacia atlantica subsp. mutica (PAM) and kurdica (PAK) kernel oils showed significantly lower unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratios (6.39, 6.33, respectively) and calculated oxidizability (Cox) values (3.99, 4.13, respectively) than those of the P. vera L. cv. Ohadi (PVO) kernel oil (8.91, 4.41) samples. The highest peroxide value was observed for the PAK oil (4.07mequivkg−1) (PAM, 1.94; PVO, 0.37) samples. Iodine values for the PAM, PAK, and PVO oils were 104.26, 104.77, and 110.66, respectively. The saponification number of the PVO oil was significantly greater than the PAM and PAK oils, which were statistically not different. The unsaponifiable contents, which were composed mainly of sterols, ranged from 5.63 to 6.14%. Statistically the total tocopherols contents of the PAM (818.58mg α-tocopherol kg−1) and PVO (815.90mg α-tocopherol kg−1) oils were significantly higher than that of the PAK oil (499.91mg α-tocopherol kg−1). Total phenolics contents differed significantly, the greatest concentration was for the PAM oil (81.12mg gallic acid kg−1), followed by the PVO (62.84mg gallic acid kg−1) and PAK (56.51mg gallic acid kg−1) oil samples. The wax contents of the oil samples were statistically in the same range, namely 5.67–6.48%. Oxidative stability data indicated that the PAM oil is the most resistant to the formation of lipid oxidation products, followed by the PAK and PVO oil samples.Journal of Oil & Fat Industries 04/2012; 85(8):723-729. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this study, a set of frying oil samples of different compositional properties but passed qualitative and quantitative standards, which were of various vegetable oil sources (individually or as blends), were obtained from seven of big oil factories in Iran. Before starting the frying process, all the frying oils had carbonyl values (CV) higher than 2 micromol g(-1). The CV of most frying oils linearly increased until the end of the frying process, whereas for some of them, the CV increased and reached a maximum and then decreased to some extent. However, in a set of frying oil samples on average, the CV linearly increased as the frying time increased. There was a linear relationship between the CV and total polar compounds (TPC) throughout the frying process with a high determination coefficient (R(2)=0.9747). The values found for carbonyl compounds of the frying oils during frying process ranged from 7.76+/-0.00 to 123.45+/-3.70 micromol g(-1). Assuming that the limit of acceptance for TPC is 24%, this was roughly corresponded to 43.50 micromol g(-1) for CV.Analytica chimica acta 07/2008; 617(1-2):18-21. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A review of relevant literature on biological activities of oxysterols (OS) and cholesterol is presented. The data clearly demonstrate manifold biological activities, often detrimental, for OS compared with little or no such activity of a deleterious nature for cholesterol itself. Cholesterol is perhaps the single most important compound in animal tissue and, as such, it is difficult to imagine it as a toxin or hazard. In contrast, OS exhibit cytotoxicity to a wide variety of cells leading to angiotoxic and atherogenic effects; alter vascular permeability to albumin; alter prostaglandin synthesis and stimulate platelet aggregation, an important process facilitating atherosclerosis and thrombosis; alter the functionality of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, possibly stimulating hypercholesterolaemia; modify cholesteryl ester accumulation in various cells, inducing foam cell formation; and enrich the LDL particle in cholesteryl esters, possibly increasing its atherogenicity. Furthermore, OS are mutagenic and carcinogenic, although some have been studied as antitumour agents based on their cytotoxic properties. Moreover, numerous studies have implicated OS in membrane and enzyme alterations that are interrelated with many of the foregoing effects. The authors find that OS deserve much more attention than cholesterol itself in terms of research activity but that unfortunately the reverse is true with regard to funding.Food and Chemical Toxicology 03/1996; 34(2):193-211. · 3.01 Impact Factor
ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF BENE HULL OIL COMPARED
WITH SESAME AND RICE BRAN OILS DURING THE FRYING
PROCESS OF SUNFLOWER OIL
ALI SHARIF, REZA FARHOOSH1,
MOHAMMAD HOSSEIN HADDAD KHODAPARAST
and MOHAMMAD HOSSEIN TAVASSOLI KAFRANI
Faculty of Agriculture
Food Science and Technology Department
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
PO Box 91775-1163, Mashhad, Iran
Received for Publication May 11, 2009
Accepted for Publication May 11, 2009
The antioxidant activity of Bene hull oil (BHO) was compared with that of
oil (SFO) at 180C. The ratio between the polyunsaturated and saturated fatty
acids and calculated oxidizability were statistically greater for the SFO (4.26
(1.53 and 4.37, respectively) and BHO (0.37 and 1.67, respectively). Peroxide
and acid values of the oils studied ranged from 0.34 to 3.07 mEq/kg and from
0.19 to 5.20 mg/g, respectively. Total tocopherols and phenolics contents of the
SEO (1093.28 and 1042.43 mg/kg, respectively) were significantly higher than
those of the SFO (740.27 and 38.68 mg/kg, respectively), BHO (573.41 and
276.67 mg/kg, respectively), and RBO (832.98 and 67.98 mg/kg, respectively).
during the frying process, the BHO showed an antioxidant activity higher than
those of the SEO and RBO at the level of 2%, and the levels higher than 2% of
the antioxidative oils caused to decrease the oxidative stability of the SFO,
indicating the pro-oxidant effect of the oils added at these levels.
This research introduces the oil obtained from the hull of Bene, a species
of pistachio growing wild in Iran, as a new source of vegetable oil for human
1Corresponding author. TEL: 98-511-8795620; FAX: 98-511-8787430; EMAIL: email@example.com
Journal of Food Lipids 16 (2009) 394–406. All Rights Reserved.
© 2009, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
nutrition with antioxidant activity significantly higher than sesame and rice
bran oils, which are considered as very stable and antioxidative vegetable oils
because of the presence of very strong indigenous antioxidants, during the
Edible fats and oils undergo extensive deterioration under the frying
conditions of foodstuff. Lipid oxidation is one of the major factors resulting in
loss of vegetable oil quality by formation of products having negative effects
on taste, aroma and nutritional value of the food, and are a health hazard and
cause of biological damage to living tissues and increase risk cardiovascular
disease (Addis and Park 1989; Chow 1992). Antioxidants are major ingredi-
ents that protect the quality of oils and fats by retarding oxidation (Wana-
sundara et al. 1994). Low-cost synthetic antioxidants propyl gallate, butylated
hydroxytoluene, butylated hydroxyanisole and tertiary butylhydroquinone are
often used to retard lipid oxidation. They are very effective during storage and
transport of oils and fats, but are less effective at frying temperatures because
of their volatility and decomposition (Nawar 1996). Moreover, there are some
serious problems concerning the safety and toxicity of such synthetic antioxi-
dants related to their metabolism and possible absorption and accumulation
in the body organs and tissues (Linderschmidt et al. 1986; Tappel 1995). A
consumer-friendly way of improving oxidative stability of frying oils and fats
is the addition of natural antioxidants. Therefore, search for finding useful
natural antioxidative sources is highly desirable.
Rice bran oil (RBO) is considered useful for health and for cooking
because of its unique high level of unsaponifiable matter (Gopala Krishna
2002).The unsaponifiable matter of RBO comprises of sterols, higher alcohols
and g-oryzanol at about 2% (w/w) (Nicolosi et al. 1994). Gama-oryzanol
inhibits tumor promotion (Yasukawa et al. 1998), reduces serum cholesterol
levels (Guardiola et al. 1996) and platelet aggregation (Seetharamaiah et al.
1990) as well as possessing antioxidant properties in several oil models
(Juliano et al. 2005). Various characteristics of RBO make it a preferred oil for
frying and baking applications compared with other vegetable oils.
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the world’s most important
oilseed crops. The oil has a mild odor and a pleasant taste and, as such, is a
natural salad oil requiring little or no winterization. Oxidative stability of
sesame oil (SEO) is superior to that of other vegetable oils although it contains
nearly 85% unsaturated fatty acids (Sonntag 1981; Abou-Gharbia et al. 1996).
The remarkable stability of the SEO may be because of the presence of unique
unsaponifiable constituents namely lignans (predominantly sesamin and sesa-
395 ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF BENE HULL OIL
molin) and tocopherols. These compounds possess strong antioxidant activity
and cardio-protective properties, and may have the potential of inhibiting the
process of aging in man and in biological systems (Budowski and Markely
1951; Namiki 1995).
Pistacia atlantica subsp. mutica widely grows in the Zagrossian region of
Iran at 600 to 3,000 m above the sea level (Sabeti 1994). Its fruits, which are
called “Bene” in Iran, are round to oval, somewhat flat, 0.5–0.7 cm in diam-
eter, and covered with a rather dry hull that could be easily removed by
pressing between fingers.This soft hull is dark green in color, comprises ~24%
of the whole fruit (~25% kernel and ~51% hard shell), and yields up to ~30%
oil (Daneshrad andAynehchi 1980). Previous studies on P. atlantica deal with
the chemical composition and oxidative stability of the kernel oil from its
current subspecies in Iran (Farhoosh et al. 2008b), and there is no information
about the chemical composition and oxidative stability of the Bene hull oil
(BHO) in the literature. Our initial findings indicated a higher oxidative sta-
bility for BHO than SEO and RBO. In this research, the antioxidant effect of
the BHO, which can be considered to be a new source of edible oil with some
interesting properties, on the sunflower oil (SFO) during frying process at
180C was compared with those of the SEO and RBO.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The ripe fruits of Bene were collected from the fields of Islamabad in the
Ilam province. Refined, bleached and deodorized SFO with no added anti-
oxidants was supplied by Segol (Nishaboor, Iran). The SEO and RBO were
purchased from a local shop (about 3 months after production). The ripe fruits
of Bene and oil samples were stored at -18C until use. The BHO, SEO, and
RBO were added to SFO at 2, 4 and 8%. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)
standards, and all chemicals and solvents used in this study were of analytical
reagent grade and were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO) and
Merck (Darmstadt, Germany).
After drying in the shade, the dark green soft hulls of Bene fruits were
separated from the dark brown hard shells. The hulls were ground in a grinder.
The powders were extracted with n-hexane (1:4 w/v) by agitation in a dark
place at ambient temperature for 48 h. The solvent was evaporated in vacuo at
40C to dryness.
396 A. SHARIF ET AL.
Potatoes were peeled and cut into pieces (7.0 cm ¥ 0.5 cm ¥ 0.3 cm) and
submerged in water until needed. Potato pieces were fried in the frying oils.
The oil (2.5 L) was placed in a 2.5-L capacity bench-top deep-fryer (Tefal
model 1,250, Paris, France) and heated to 180C. Potato pieces were fried in
20-g batches at constant frying temperature. The batches were fried at 7-min
intervals for 8 h per day for four consecutive days. At the end of each 4 h,
about 10 g of the frying oil was filtered into a screw-cap vial and promptly
stored in the dark at 4C until analyzed. The volume of oil was not replenished
during the frying process. Frying experiments were conducted in duplicate on
each frying medium (Tyagi and Vasihtha 1996).
Fatty Acid Composition
The fatty acid composition of the oils was determined by gas–liquid
chromatography and was reported in relative area percentages. Fatty acids
were transesterified into their corresponding FAMEs by vigorous shaking of a
solution of oil in hexane (0.3 g in 7 mL) with 2 mL of 7 M methanolic KOH
at 50C for 10 min. The FAMEs were identified using an HP-5890 chromato-
graph (Agilent, Palo Alto, CA) equipped with a CP-Sil 88 (Supelco, Belle-
fonte, PA) capillary column of fused silica, 60 m in length ¥ 0.22 mm in
internal diameter, 0.2-mm film thickness, and a flame ionization detector.
Nitrogen was used as carrier gas with a flow rate of 0.75 mL/min. The oven
temperature was maintained at 198C, and that of the injector and the detector
at 250C (Farhoosh et al. 2008a).
Calculated Oxidizability (Cox) Value
The Cox value of the oils was calculated by the percentage of unsaturated
1 18 110 3 18 2. 21 6 18 3. 100:::
Peroxide Value (PV)
The spectrophotometric method of the International Dairy Federation as
described by Shantha and Decker (1994) was used to determine the PV
Acid Value (AV)
The AV was determined according to the AOCS (1993) Official Method
397ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF BENE HULL OIL
Total Tocopherols (TT) Content
The TT content was determined according to the colorimetric method
described by Wong et al. (1988).
Total Phenolics (TP) Content
The TP content was determined spectrophotometrically using Folin–
Ciocalteau’s reagent according to the method described by Capannesi et al.
(2000). A calibration curve of gallic acid in methanol was performed in the
concentration range of 0.04–0.40 mg/mL.
Conjugated Diene Value (CDV)
The CDV was measured spectrophotometrically at 234 nm and read
against a high-performance liquid chromatography grade hexane as blank.The
oil samples were diluted to 1:600 with hexane. An extinction coefficient of
29,000 mol/L was utilized to quantify the concentration of conjugated dienes
formed during oxidation (Saguy et al. 1996).
Carbonyl Value (CV)
The CV of the oils was measured according to the method developed by
Endo et al. (2001) using 2-propanol and 2,4-decadienal as solvent and stan-
dard, respectively (Farhoosh and Moosavi 2006).
All experiments and measurements were carried out in triplicate, and data
were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). ANOVA and regression
analyses were performed according to the MStatC (Michigan State University,
East Lansing, MI) and SlideWrite (Advanced Graphics Software, Carlsbad,
CA) softwares. Significant differences between means were determined by
Duncan’s multiple range tests. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statis-
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The initial characteristics of the SFO along with those of the antioxidative
oils studied (BHO, SEO, and RBO) are summarized in Table 1. The highest
statistically significant percentage of the saturated fatty acids (SFA, mainly
palmitic acid, 16:0) was found in the BHO (26.04%), RBO (23.06%), SEO
(16.52%), and SFO (13.40%), respectively. The percentage of palmitoleic acid
398 A. SHARIF ET AL.
(16:1) in the BHO is considered to be unique among all common vegetable oils
(12.39% versus <2%); its level in animal fats and marine oils is ranged from 2
of palmitic and oleic (18:0) acids, BHO showed the highest statistically signifi-
(41.49%), SEO (30.20%) and SFO (28.62). The lowest statistically significant
percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was observed in the BHO
(9.67% versus 35.12, 52.57, and 57.04% in RBO, SEO and SFO, respectively).
From the information stated earlier, the PUFA/SFA ratio and Cox value were
statistically greater for the SFO, followed by the SEO, RBO and BHO. The
to undergo autoxidation (Fatemi and Hammond 1980; Mendez et al. 1996).
The PV andAV of the oils studied ranged from 0.34 to 3.07 mEq/kg, and
from 0.19 to 5.20 mg/g, respectively. The higher amounts of these two param-
eters, especially for BHO, can likely be caused by improper storage and/or
THE FATTY ACID COMPOSITION (%) AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE
SUNFLOWER (SFO), BENE HULL (BHO), SESAME (SEO) AND RICE BRAN (RBO) OILS
ParameterSFOBHO SEO RBO
0.11 ? 0.16a,b
8.54 ? 0.21d
0.21 ? 0.05b
4.76 ? 0.11b
28.0 ? 0.04d
54.2 ? 0.21a
2.84 ? 0.20c
0.42 ? 0.06b
0.94 ? 0.13a
13.4 ? 0.47d
28.6 ? 0.07d
57.0 ? 0.40a
4.26 ? 0.18a
6.48 ? 0.06a
0.34 ? 0.05c
0.19 ? 0.01d
740 ? 14.1c
38.7 ? 6.83c
22.4 ? 0.01a,b
12.4 ? 0.22a
3.65 ? 0.06c
51.6 ? 0.01a
8.27 ? 0.06d
1.40 ? 0.04d
0.37 ? 0.01b
26.0 ? 0.08a
64.3 ? 0.21a
9.67 ? 0.10d
0.37 ? 0.00d
1.67 ? 0.02d
2.87 ? 0.12a
5.20 ? 0.01a
573 ? 9.81d
277 ? 16.2b
0.09 ? 0.12b
10.4 ? 0.10c
0.22 ? 0.08b
5.77 ? 0.10a
29.6 ? 0.25c
47.6 ? 0.50b
4.99 ? 0.08a
0.30 ? 0.02
0.43 ? 0.06b
0.61 ? 0.07b
16.5 ? 0.34c
30.2 ? 0.11c
52.6 ? 0.42b
3.18 ? 0.09b
6.27 ? 0.04b
0.52 ? 0.06b
1.82 ? 0.01b
1093 ? 38.9a
1042 ? 24.8a
0.67 ? 0.23a
19.5 ? 0.83b
0.39 ? 0.07b
2.86 ? 0.04d
40.2 ? 0.62b
32.0 ? 0.01c
3.12 ? 0.01b
0.94 ? 0.02a
0.34 ? 0.48a,b
23.1 ? 1.03b
41.5 ? 0.53b
35.1 ? 0.01c
1.53 ? 0.07c
4.37 ? 0.01c
3.07 ? 0.03a
0.25 ? 0.01c
833 ? 35.2b
68.0 ? 15.6c
Mean ? SD (standard deviation) within a row with the same lowercase letters are not significantly
different at P < 0.05.
AV, acid value (mg KOH per g oil); Cox, calculated oxidizability; MUFA, monounsaturated fatty acids;
PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acid; PV, peroxide value (mEq O2per kg oil); SFA, saturated fatty acids;
TP, total phenolics (mg gallic acid per kg oil); TT, total tocopherols (mg a-tocopherol per kg oil).
399ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF BENE HULL OIL
handling conditions of the oils (Farhoosh and Pazhouhanmehr 2009). The TT
and TP contents of the SEO (1,093.28 and 1,042.43 mg/kg, respectively) were
significantly higher than those of the SFO (740.27 and 38.68 mg/kg, respec-
tively), BHO (573.41 and 276.67 mg/kg, respectively) and RBO (832.98 and
67.98 mg/kg, respectively). Tocopherols and phenolic compounds are particu-
larly important functional constituents of the unsaponifiable fraction of vege-
table oils. Tocopherols have antioxidant properties and they are active as
vitamin E, which makes them particularly important for human health. Interest
in phenolic compounds is related primarily to their antioxidant activity; never-
theless, they also show important biological activity in vivo and may be
beneficial in combating diseases related to excessive oxygen radical formation
exceeding the antioxidant defense capacity of the human body (Aparicio et al.
1999; Morello et al. 2004).
Table 2 shows the CDV of the SFO as affected by BHO, SEO and RBO
during the frying process at 180C. It has been reported that the conjugated
dienes increase initially and then reach a plateau during heat treatment. This
has been related to the establishment of an equilibrium between the rate of
formation of conjugated dienes and the rate of formation of polymers formed
by a Diels–Alder reaction involving conjugated dienes (White 1995). In the
present study, all the oil samples showed a similar trend of changes in the CDV
with frying time. During the 32 h heating process, the CDVs linearly increased
and no plateau was observed until the end of the process.The results calculated
from the linear relationship between the CDV and frying time for the oils
studied are shown in Table 3. The slope of the linear equations (a values),
which were considered to be a measure of the rate of CDV increase during the
frying process, was significantly different for the oils. SFO showed the lowest
CONJUGATED DIENE VALUE (CDV) OF THE SUNFLOWER OIL (SFO) AS AFFECTED BY
THE BENE HULL OIL (BHO), SESAME OIL (SEO) AND RICE BRAN OIL (RBO) DURING
THE FRYING PROCESS AT 180C
10.6 ? 0.55h,A,B
17.3 ? 0.43g,A
23.7 ? 0.12f,A
32.6 ? 0.44e,A
34.8 ? 0.96d,A
45.5 ? 0.03c,A
48.7 ? 0.91b,A
58.5 ? 0.98a,A
61.6 ? 1.18a,A
9.74 ? 0.77g,A,B
14.4 ? 0.48f,C
18.4 ? 0.54e,D,E
24.1 ? 0.71d,C
29.4 ? 1.57c,B
32.6 ? 1.37c,E
38.5 ? 1.73b,D
42.2 ? 1.61a,b,E
44.9 ? 1.24a,E
10.0 ? 0.53g,A,B
16.1 ? 0.98f,A,B,C
21.2 ? 1.49e,B,C,D,E
28.5 ? 1.57d,B
31.5 ? 1.19d,A,B
39.5 ? 1.12c,B,C
42.7 ? 1.94b,c,B,C,D
46.5 ? 2.40a,b,D,E
51.7 ? 2.63a,B,C,D
10.6 ? 0.48g,A
14.8 ? 0.39f,C
20.9 ? 0.90e,B,C,E
29.9 ? 1.65d,B
35.3 ? 1.71c,A
40.0 ? 1.51c,B,C
46.7 ? 2.08b,A,B
50.3 ? 2.60a,b,B,C,D
54.5 ? 0.71a,B,C
Means ? SD (standard deviation) within a column with the same lowercase letters are not significantly different at P < 0.05.
Means ? SD within a row with the same uppercase letters are not significantly different at P < 0.05.
400A. SHARIF ET AL.
frying stability (a = 1.63), and there was no statistically significant difference
between its a value and those of the SFOs containing 8% SEO (a = 1.54) or
RBO (a = 1.53). This indicates that SEO and RBO had no antioxidative effect
on the SFO at the level of 8%. The lowest statistically significant a value
belonged to the SFOs containing 2% BHO (1.14) or SEO (1.17), indicating the
SEO (%)RBO (%)
10.8 ? 0.36g,A
15.0 ? 0.75f,B,C
19.7 ? 1.57e,B,C,D,E
26.5 ? 2.73d,B,C
30.6 ? 2.69c,d,A,B
33.6 ? 2.22c,D,E
40.5 ? 1.29b,C,D
44.5 ? 1.29a,b,D,E
47.0 ? 2.83a,D,E
10.6 ? 0.88g,A
17.7 ? 0.87f,A
21.9 ? 1.74e,A,B,C
28.8 ? 0.96d,B
33.4 ? 1.49c,A,B
37.5 ? 1.73c,B,C,D
43.1 ? 1.44b,B,C,D
46.5 ? 1.29a,b,D,E
52.5 ? 1.29a,B,C,D
10.3 ? 0.66g,A,B
15.0 ? 0.73f,B,C
20.0 ? 1.36e,B,C,D,E
28.0 ? 1.80d,B
32.9 ? 1.85d,A,B
41.1 ? 1.95c,B,C,D
43.5 ? 1.29c,B,C
54.3 ? 1.06b,B
58.0 ? 1.41a,A
10.6 ? 0.59f,A
16.0 ? 0.60e,A,B,C
18.2 ? 1.95e,E
27.5 ? 1.29d,B
32.2 ? 2.13c,d,A,B
36.3 ? 1.71c,C,D,E
42.7 ? 2.25b,B,C,D
48.0 ? 2.33a,b,C,D,E
51.1 ? 1.78a,C,D
9.84 ? 0.36g,A,B
14.9 ? 0.52f,C
18.8 ? 0.99e,C,D,E
27.8 ? 1.50d,B
32.9 ? 2.29d,A,B
39.4 ? 1.97c,B,C,D
44.0 ? 1.41b,c,B,C
49.5 ? 2.65a,b,B,C,D
52.3 ? 1.71a,B,C,D
9.40 ? 0.24b,B
16.7 ? 0.47g,A,B
22.8 ? 1.48f,A,B
30.7 ? 2.38e,A,B
36.6 ? 2.53d,e,A
43.1 ? 2.62c,d,A,B
46.7 ? 1.40c,A,B
52.1 ? 2.10b,B,C
56.0 ? 1.35a,A
THE RESULTS CALCULATED FROM THE LINEAR RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE
CONJUGATED DIENE VALUE (CDV) AND THE FRYING TIME FOR THE SUNFLOWER OIL
AS AFFECTED BY THE BENE HULL OIL (BHO), SESAME OIL (SEO) AND RICE BRAN OIL
(RBO) DURING THE FRYING PROCESS AT 180C
OilCDV = a (time) + b
a ? SE
b ? SE
1.63 ? 0.06a
11.0 ? 1.08a,b,c
1.14 ? 0.03d
1.30 ? 0.04c
1.43 ? 0.05b
10.1 ? 0.57b,c
11.2 ? 0.82a,b
10.7 ? 0.99a,b,c
1.17 ? 0.04d
1.27 ? 0.03c
1.54 ? 0.05a
11.0 ? 0.70a,b
12.1 ? 0.62a
9.1 ? 0.95c
1.31 ? 0.04c
1.40 ? 0.05b
1.53 ? 0.04a
10.4 ? 0.83b,c
9.8 ? 0.92b,c
10.8 ? 0.81a,b
Means within a column with the same lowercase letters are not significantly different at P < 0.05.
SE, standard error.
401ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF BENE HULL OIL
highest antioxidant potential for these two antioxidative oils at this level. As
shown in Table 3, the levels higher than 2% of the antioxidative oils decreased
the oxidative stability of SFOs (increases in a values), indicating a pro-oxidant
effect of the oils added at these levels. With regard to TT and TP contents of
BHO being approximately one-half and one-fourth of those of the SEO,
respectively (Table 1), it can be concluded that the phenolic fraction of the
BHO may contain component(s) with antioxidant activity similar to or even
more effective than that of lignans (sesamin and sesamolin) of the SEO and/or
g-oryzanol of the RBO.
Table 4 shows the CV of the SFO as affected by the addition of BHO,
SEO and RBO during the frying process at 180C. In a previous research, the
CV of a set of frying oils increased and reached a maximum value during the
frying process, and then decreased as a result of further heat treatment. This
was attributed to the decomposition of carbonyl compounds during the pro-
longed heating period and the formation of new compounds that were not
detectable by the CV assay (Farhoosh and Moosavi 2008). Except for the
SFOs containing 4% RBO and 8% of each of the three antioxidative oils, the
other oil treatments showed an increasing trend of CV to the end of the frying
process. If the CV of a used frying oil is ?43.5 mmol/g, the oil is still
considered as being safe and acceptable, flavorwise (Farhoosh and Moosavi
2008). Assuming that the limit of acceptance for the CV is 43.5 mmol/g, the
time required to reach this limit was considered as a measure of frying stability
(t43.5). As can be seen in Fig. 1, 2–4% BHO showed the highest antioxidant
activity among all levels of the antioxidative oils studied, and in all oil treat-
ments, a pro-oxidant effect was observed with increase in the level of the
antioxidative oils added to 8%.
CARBONYL VALUE (CV) OF THE SUNFLOWER OIL (SFO) AS AFFECTED BY THE BENE
HULL OIL (BHO), SESAME OIL (SEO) AND RICE BRAN OIL (RBO) DURING THE FRYING
PROCESS AT 180C
Time (hour)SFO BHO (%)
7.89 ? 0.54g,A
13.5 ? 0.61f,B,C,D,E
22.2 ? 1.11e,A
24.6 ? 1.24e,B,C
35.8 ? 1.40d,A
39.4 ? 2.37d,B
47.6 ? 2.43c,B
58.1 ? 2.55b,A
70.8 ? 1.49a,A
8.47 ? 0.32f,A
13.7 ? 1.10e,B,C,D,E
16.2 ? 1.85e,C,D
21.5 ? 1.59d,C,D
24.6 ? 1.66c,d,D
26.1 ? 1.25c,D
30.9 ? 1.16b,D,E
34.5 ? 0.71a,C
35.8 ? 0.90a,D
8.67 ? 0.93e,A
13.0 ? 0.71d,C,D,E
12.9 ? 1.02d,D
14.8 ? 0.84c,d,E
17.8 ? 1.70b,c,E
21.7 ? 1.48b,E
23.4 ? 1.85a,b,F
27.1 ? 1.26a,E
27.9 ? 1.36a,E
8.30 ? 0.98g,A
11.1 ? 1.69g,D,E,F
16.6 ? 1.61f,C,D
18.9 ? 1.97e,f,D,E
23.0 ? 1.71e,D
28.6 ? 1.87d,C,D
44.7 ? 2.16a,B
32.9 ? 0.33c,D
36.2 ? 1.16b,D
Means ? SD (standard deviation) within a column with the same lowercase letters are not significantly different at P < 0.05.
Means ? SD within a row with the same uppercase letters are not significantly different at P < 0.05.
402A. SHARIF ET AL.
The research was funded by Ferdowsi University of Mashhad under
Project Grant AGRI/29917/2008. The authors are grateful to V. Najafi and
B.M. Taheri for their valuable attempts to carry out the experiments in this
SEO (%)RBO (%)
8.8 ? 0.88f,A
14.0 ? 0.59e,B,C,D
16.2 ? 1.67d,e,C,D
19.9 ? 1.18d,D
28.0 ? 1.92c,C,D
28.3 ? 0.85c,C,D
33.9 ? 2.21b,C,D
36.3 ? 1.19b,B,D
41.0 ? 1.41a,B,C
8.18 ? 0.78f,A
11.0 ? 1.03e,E,F
17.6 ? 1.41d,B,C
18.2 ? 0.87d,D
23.6 ? 1.42c,D
28.8 ? 1.72b,C,D
32.6 ? 1.17a,b,C,D
33.5 ? 1.06a,C,D
36.6 ? 2.15a,C,D
8.43 ? 0.52f,A
17.5 ? 0.71e,A
21.0 ? 1.39d,A,B
28.3 ? 1.10c,A
35.6 ? 1.92b,A,B
49.0 ? 1.46a,A
27.4 ? 1.75c,E,F
29.5 ? 0.71c,E
32.9 ? 1.27b,D
8.09 ? 0.62f,A
16.1 ? 1.21e,A,B
15.5 ? 1.24e,C,D
20.6 ? 0.82d,D
26.9 ? 1.31c,D
30.4 ? 1.30c,C
35.3 ? 1.27b,C
38.0 ? 1.28b,B
43.3 ? 1.61a,B
8.50 ? 0.71g,A
14.8 ? 0.71f,B,C
17.3 ? 0.45e,C
18.9 ? 1.32d,e,D
23.0 ? 1.37d,D
30.1 ? 1.49c,C,D
43.2 ? 1.36a,B
33.2 ? 0.12b,D
35.1 ? 1.34b,D
8.13 ? 0.73g,A
9.60 ? 1.31f,g,F
13.1 ? 1.38f,D
27.5 ? 1.01e,A,B
31.6 ? 1.20d,B,C
36.5 ? 1.82c,B
70.1 ? 1.02a,A
58.5 ? 1.18b,A
39.7 ? 1.17c,B,C
FIG. 1. THE TIME REQUIRED TO REACH A CARBONYL VALUE OF 43.5 mmol/g (t43.5) FOR
THE SUNFLOWER OIL (SFO) AS AFFECTED BY THE BENE HULL OIL (BHO), SESAME
OIL (SEO) AND RICE BRAN OIL (RBO) DURING THE FRYING PROCESS AT 180C
Means ? standard errors with the same lowercase letters are not significantly different at P < 0.05.
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