Brevinin‐2R1 semi‐selectively kills cancer cells by a distinct mechanism, which involves the lysosomal‐mitochondrial death pathway

Department of Chemistry Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.75). 05/2008; 12(3):1005 - 1022. DOI: 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2008.00129.x

ABSTRACT Brevinin-2R is a novel non-hemolytic defensin that was isolated from the skin of the frog Rana ridibunda. It exhibits preferential cytotoxicity towards malignant cells, including Jurkat (T-cell leukemia), BJAB (B-cell lymphoma), HT29/219, SW742 (colon carcinomas), L929 (fibrosarcoma), MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma), A549 (lung carcinoma), as compared to primary cells including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), T cells and human lung fibroblasts. Jurkat and MCF-7 cells overexpressing Bcl2, and L929 and MCF-7 over-expressing a dominant-negative mutant of a pro-apoptotic BNIP3 (ΔTM-BNIP3) were largely resistant towards Brevinin-2R treatment. The decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), or total cellular ATP levels, and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, but not caspase activation or the release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) or endonuclease G (Endo G), were early indicators of Brevinin-2R-triggered death. Brevinin-2R interacts with both early and late endosomes. Lysosomal membrane permeabilization inhibitors and inhibitors of cathepsin-B and cathepsin-L prevented Brevinin-2R-induced cell death. Autophagosomes have been detected upon Brevinin-2R treatment. Our results show that Brevinin-2R activates the lysosomalmitochondrial death pathway, and involves autophagy-like cell death.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is a flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing, NADH-dependent oxidoreductase residing in the mitochondrial intermembrane space whose specific enzymatic activity remains unknown. Upon an apoptotic insult, AIF undergoes proteolysis and translocates to the nucleus, where it triggers chromatin condensation and large-scale DNA degradation in a caspase-independent manner. Besides playing a key role in execution of caspase-independent cell death, AIF has emerged as a protein critical for cell survival. Analysis of in vivo phenotypes associated with AIF deficiency and defects, and identification of its mitochondrial, cytoplasmic, and nuclear partners revealed the complexity and multilevel regulation of AIF-mediated signal transduction and suggested an important role of AIF in the maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and energy metabolism. The redox activity of AIF is essential for optimal oxidative phosphorylation. Additionally, the protein is proposed to regulate the respiratory chain indirectly, through assembly and/or stabilization of complexes I and III. This review discusses accumulated data with respect to the AIF structure and outlines evidence that supports the prevalent mechanistic view on the apoptogenic actions of the flavoprotein, as well as the emerging concept of AIF as a redox sensor capable of linking NAD(H)-dependent metabolic pathways to apoptosis.
    Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 06/2011; 14(12):2545-79. · 8.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, two novel antimicrobial peptides from the skin secretions of the marsh frog, Rana ridibunda, named temporin-Ra and temporin-Rb, were identified and purified using RP-HPLC. Temporin-Ra and temporin-Rb are composed of 14 and 12 amino acids, respectively. Our results show that these peptides have inhibitory effects on both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, especially antibiotic resistant strains prevalent in hospitals, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. The sequences and molecular weights of these peptides were determined using tandem MS. The molecular masses were found to be 1242.5 Da for temporin-Rb and 1585.1 Da for temporin-Ra. Human red blood cells tolerated well exposure to temporin-Ra and temporin-Rb, which, at a concentration of 60 µg/ml, induced 1.3% and 1.1% hemolysis, respectively. MIC values of these peptides are suitable for potent antimicrobial peptides. The low hemolytic effect and wide-spectrum antimicrobial activity suggest a possible therapeutic application of these novel peptides.
    Journal of Peptide Science 09/2011; 18(1):10-6. · 2.07 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Autophagy, hallmarked by the formation of double-membrane bound organelles known as autophagosomes, is a lysosome-dependent pathway for protein degradation. The role of autophagy in carcinogenesis is context dependent. As a tumor-suppressing mechanism in early-stage carcinogenesis, autophagy inhibits inflammation and promotes genomic stability. Moreover, disruption of autophagy-related genes accelerates tumorigenesis in animals. However, autophagy may also act as a pro-survival mechanism to protect cancer cells from various forms of cellular stress. In cancer therapy, adaptive autophagy in cancer cells sustains tumor growth and survival in face of the toxicity of cancer therapy. To this end, inhibition of autophagy may sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation. Nevertheless, in certain circumstances, autophagy mediates the therapeutic effects of some anticancer agents. Data from recent studies are beginning to unveil the apparently paradoxical nature of autophagy as a cell-fate decision machinery. Taken together, modulation of autophagy is a novel approach for enhancing the efficacy of existing cancer therapy, but its Janus-faced nature may complicate the clinical development of autophagy modulators as anticancer therapeutics.
    Oncogene 07/2011; 31(8):939-53. · 8.56 Impact Factor


Available from
May 21, 2014