The SCUBA HAlf Degree Extragalactic Survey – VI. 350‐μm mapping of submillimetre galaxies

UK ATC, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (Impact Factor: 5.11). 03/2008; 384(4):1597 - 1610. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2007.12808.x
Source: OAI


ABSTRACTA follow-up survey using the Submillimetre High-Angular Resolution Camera (SHARC-II) at 350 μm has been carried out to map the regions around several 850-μm-selected sources from the Submillimetre HAlf Degree Extragalactic Survey (SHADES). These observations probe the infrared (IR) luminosities and hence star formation rates in the largest existing, most robust sample of submillimetre galaxies (SMGs). We measure 350-μm flux densities for 24 850-μm sources, seven of which are detected at ≥2.5σ within a 10 arcsec search radius of the 850-μm positions. When results from the literature are included the total number of 350-μm flux density constraints of SHADES SMGs is 31, with 15 detections. We fit a modified blackbody to the far-IR (FIR) photometry of each SMG, and confirm that typical SMGs are dust-rich (Mdust≃ 9 × 108 M⊙), luminous (LFIR≃ 2 × 1012 L⊙) star-forming galaxies with intrinsic dust temperatures of ≃35 K and star formation rates of ≃400 M⊙ yr−1. We have measured the temperature distribution of SMGs and find that the underlying distribution is slightly broader than implied by the error bars, and that most SMGs are at 28 K with a few hotter. We also place new constraints on the 350-μm source counts, N350(>25 mJy) ∼ 200–500 deg−2.


Available from: Mattia Vaccari
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    • "At 850 µm, the opacity of the atmosphere is sufficiently low to allow observations from the ground. The counts at this wavelength resolve only 20-30% of the CIB [26]. Deeper counts, resolving the bulk of the CIB, are derived in fields lensed by low-z galaxy clusters, where the error budget is dominated by the large scale structure (narrow field) [35] [28]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The extragalactic background light (EBL) is the relic emission of all processes of structure formation in the Universe. About half of this background, called the Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) is emitted in the 8-1000 microns range, and peaks around 150 microns. It is due to the dust reemission from star formation processes and AGN emission. The CIB spectral energy distribution (SED) constraints the models of star formation in the Universe. It is also useful to compute the opacity of the Universe to the TeV photons. We present the different types of measurements of the CIB and discuss their strengths and weaknesses. 1. The absolute SED was measured by COBE, and by other experiments. These measurements are limited by the accuracy of the component separation, i.e. the foreground subtraction. 2. Robust lower limits are determined from the extragalactic number counts of infrared galaxies. These lower limits are very stringent up to 100 microns. At larger wavelengths, the rather low angular resolution of the instruments limits strongly the depth of the number counts. The "stacking" method determines the flux emitted at a given wavelength by a population detected at another wavelength, and provides stringent lower limits in the sub-mm range. It is complementary with other methods based on the statistical analysis of the map properties like the P(D) analysis. 3. Finally, upper limits can be derived from the high energy spectra of extragalactic sources. These upper limits give currently good constraints in the near- and mid-IR. Progress have been amazing since the CIB discovery about 15 years ago: the SED is much better known, and most of it can be accounted for by galaxies (directly or indirectly). Prospects are also exciting, with fluctuation analysis with Planck&Herschel, and forthcoming missions.
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    ABSTRACT: We present estimates of the photometric redshifts, stellar masses and star formation histories of sources in the SCUBA HAlf Degree Extragalactic Survey (SHADES). This paper describes the 60 SCUBA sources detected in the Lockman Hole covering an area of ~320 square arcmin. Using photometry spanning the B band to 8um, we find that the average SCUBA source forms a significant fraction of its stars in an early period of star formation and that most of the remainder forms in a shorter more intense burst around the redshift it is observed. This trend does not vary significantly with source redshift but the exact ratio of early to late mass is quite sensitive to the way extinction is treated in the modelling. However, the sources show a clear increase in stellar mass with redshift, consistent with downsizing. In terms of SED types, only two out of the 51 sources we have obtained photometric redshifts for are best fit by a quasar-like spectral energy distribution, with approximately 80 per cent of the sources being best fit with late-type spectra (Sc, Im and starburst). By including photometry at 850um, we conclude that the average SCUBA source is forming stars at a rate somewhere between 6 and 30 times the rate implied from the rest-frame optical in a dust obscured burst and that this burst creates 15-65 per cent of the total stellar mass. Using a simplistic calculation, we estimate from the average star formation history that between one in five and one in 15 bright (L_* +2 mag < L_optical < L_* -1 mag) galaxies in the field over the interval 0 < z < 3 will at some point in their lifetime experience a similar energetic dusty burst of star formation. Finally, we compute the evolution of the star formation rate density and find it peaks around z=2. Comment: 27 pages, 23 figures. Refereed resubmission to MNRAS. 5 figures containing postage stamp images have been placed in separate files due to upload limit
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 02/2008; 386(2). DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13113.x · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a comparison between the SCUBA (Submillimetre Common User Bolometer Array) Half Degree Extragalactic Survey (SHADES) at 450 and 850 μm in the Lockman Hole East with a deep Spitzer Space Telescope survey at 3.6–24 μm conducted in guaranteed time. Using stacking analyses we demonstrate a striking correspondence between the galaxies contributing the submm extragalactic background light, with those likely to dominate the backgrounds at Spitzer wavelengths. Using a combination BRIzK plus Spitzer photometric redshifts, we show that at least a third of the Spitzer-identified submm galaxies at 1 < z < 1.5 appear to reside in overdensities when the density field is smoothed at 0.5–2 Mpc comoving diameters, supporting the high-redshift reversal of the local star formation–galaxy density relation. We derive the dust-shrouded cosmic star formation history of galaxies as a function of assembled stellar masses. For model stellar masses <1011 M⊙, this peaks at lower redshifts than the ostensible z∼ 2.2 maximum for submm point sources, adding to the growing consensus for ‘downsizing’ in star formation. Our surveys are also consistent with ‘downsizing’ in mass assembly. Both the mean star formation rates 〈dM*/dt〉 and specific star formation rates 〈(1/M*) d M*/d t〉 are in striking disagreement with some semi-analytic predictions from the Millenium Simulation. The discrepancy could either be resolved with a top-heavy initial mass function, or a significant component of the submm flux heated by the interstellar radiation field.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 05/2008; 386(4):1907 - 1921. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13197.x · 5.11 Impact Factor
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