Nucleic Acid Research Institute ICN Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Irvine, California 92714
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 4.31). 12/2006; 284(1):211 - 229. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1977.tb21953.x

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    ABSTRACT: A considerable amount of information has accumulated during the past 10 years in the search for antiviral agents. Ribavirin and inosiplex are 2 interesting developments to come out of this search. Ribavirin, a synthetic nucleoside, has an unusually wide spectrum of antiviral activity, especially when tested in vitro. A large number of RNA and DNA viruses are sensitive, especially herpes viruses, poxvirus, influenza, parainfluenza, reovirus, togavirus, and RNA tumour viruses. The in vivo antiviral spectrum of activity is much narrower, with activity against herpes virus, influenza, parainfluenza, measles and adenoviruses. However, controlled clinical trials have not been uniformly successful in treating influenza, hepatitis, herpes simplex and herpes zoster. Inosiplex has been shown to have antiviral activity in vivo against influenza, herpes simplex, rhinovirus and vaccinia virus infections. However, antiviral activity has not been consistently demonstrated, and this observation led to further studies which revealed its immunomodulating effects. The accumulated evidence has indicated that inosiplex is more a prohost agent rather than an antiviral drug. Immune functions which are depressed during viral infection can be restored to normal by inosiplex therapy. At present, neither ribavirin nor inosiplex alone has been shown to be uniformly successful in the treatment of human viral diseases. Nevertheless, their potential place in chemotherapy should not be neglected, although further data are needed to determine what this place will be. Whether combining them with other antiviral agents such as interferon, acyclovir, Ara-A, and so on, would produce a potentiation of action and improved antiviral chemotherapy, will be an interesting area for further study.
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    ABSTRACT: Incorporation of Virazole into potato explant and meristem culture media results in a higher percentage of virus-free progeny plants from virus-infected explant and meristem donor plants than are produced in tissue cultures in the absence of Virazole. Viruses eliminated, singly and as complexes, include potato viruses X, Y, S and M. The need for sensitive virus tests to distinguish between virus suppression and elimination is discussed and protein-A-linked immunoelectron microscopy is described and quantified for potato virus X. In der vorliegenden und einer früheren Arbeit (Cassells & Long, 1980) zeigte Kultivierung von Explantaten auf einem Medium für Gewebekultur mit Virazole (Ribavirin) einen signifikanten Anstieg virusfreier Adventivschosse gegenüber der Kontrolle. Diese Adventivschosse wie auch Kartoffelpflanzen zweiter Generation verhielten sich auch gegenüber den empfindlichsten immunoelektronen-mikroskopischen Tests virusfrei. In Gegenwart von Virazol ergab auch Meristemkultur einen höheren Anteil virusfreier Pflanzen als bei Fehlen dieser Verbindung. Die Kartoffelviren X, Y, M und S sowie Viruskomplexe konnten aus den Sorten May Queen, King Edward, Kerr's Pink und Golden Wonder eliminiert werden (Tabellen 2 und 3). Die Ergebnisse der Anwendung und der Quantifizierung der Protein A-gebundenen Immuno-Elektronenmikroskopie (PALIEM) werden ebenfalls dargestellt (Abb. 1). Cette étude a montré, comme d'autres travaux préliminaires (Cassels & Long, 1980), que le fait de cultiver des boutures sur un milieu de culture de tissus contenant du virazole (ribavirine) permettait d'augmenter de façon significative le nombre de tiges aventices indemmes de virus par rapport au témoin. Ces tiges adventices, dans le cas de plants de deuxième génération, sont apparues indemmes de virus par l'analyse des tests les plus sensibles de microscopie immuno-électronique. En présence du virazole, la culture de méristèmes montre également un taux plus élevé de plants indemmes de virus que sans l'application de virazole. Les virus concernés sont les virus X, Y, M, S ainsi, que les complexes viraux, provenant des variétés May Queen, King Edward, Kerr's Pink et Golden Wonder (tableau 2 et 3). Sont également indiqués les résultats qualificatifs et quantitatifs de la microcopie immunoélectronique avec utilisation de la protéine A (PALIEM) (figure 1).
    Potato Research 05/1982; 25(2):165-173. DOI:10.1007/BF02359803 · 0.84 Impact Factor
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