Maternal and cord blood serum levels of zinc, copper, and iron in healthy pregnant Jordanian women

The Journal of Trace Elements in Experimental Medicine 01/2004; 17(1):1 - 8. DOI: 10.1002/jtra.10032

ABSTRACT Altered plasma levels of zinc, copper, and iron during pregnancy are known to have profound effects on pregnant women and their neonates. The status of these elements is not known in pregnant women in Jordan. During the three trimesters of pregnancy, blood specimens were collected from 186 healthy pregnant women aged 17–45 years and from cord blood of 92 of their neonates. The mean neonatal birth weight was 3.34 ± 0.44 kg. Maternal and cord blood serum levels of zinc, copper, and iron were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and hemoglobin concentration was determined by hematology cell counter. The results indicate significantly lower serum zinc levels and higher copper and iron levels in cord blood than in maternal blood. During the three trimesters of pregnancy, the serum levels of zinc and copper significantly decreased and increased, respectively, whereas the levels of serum iron were unchanged. Significant positive correlation was observed only between zinc levels of cord blood and birth weight. During third trimester, the mean serum levels of zinc and iron were significantly lower in anemic pregnant women (group I: Hb less than 11.0 g/dL, n = 36) than that in nonanemic pregnant women (group II: Hb > or = 11.0 g/dL, n = 56). There was no noticeable difference between group I and group II regarding cord blood parameters on one hand and neonatal birth weight on the other hand. Similar significant positive correlation was observed between serum zinc levels of cord blood and birth weight in both groups. These results indicate that Jordanian women during pregnancy follow a well-balanced and adequate diet regime. J. Trace Elem. Exp. Med. 17:1–8, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Zn-deficiency has been associated with numerous alterations during pregnancy including low birth weight; however, the research relating neonatal zinc status and birth weight has not produced reliable results. Objective: To compare the serum Zn-levels of cord blood in healthy newborns and low birth weight newborns, and to assess a possible relationship between zinc concentration and neonatal birth weight and gestational age. Material and methods: 123 newborns divided in “study group” (n = 50) with <2500 g birth weight neonates and “control group” (n = 73) with ≥2500 g birth weight neonates were enrolled. Study group was subdi-vided according to gestational age in preterm (<37 weeks) and full-term (≥37 weeks). Serum cord blood samples were collected and the Zn-levels were analyzed using flame Atomic Absorption Spectropho-tometry method and the result was expressed in �mol/L. The Zn-levels were compared between the groups (Mann–Whitney-U test) and the Zn-levels were correlated with the birth weight and gestational age (Spearman’s rank correlations). Results: Statistically significant low positive correlation between Zn-levels and birth weight (� = 0.283; p = 0.005) was found. No statistically significant difference between Zn-levels of study and control groups [17.00 ± 0.43 vs. 18.16 ± 0.32 (p = 0.053)] was found. Statistically significant low positive correlation between Zn-levels and gestational age (� = 0.351; p = 0.001) was found. No statistically significant dif-ference between Zn-levels of preterm as compare to full-term newborns [16.33 ± 0.42 vs. 18.43 ± 0.93 (p = 0.079)] was found. Zn-level of preterm subgroup was significantly lower compared to control group (p = 0.001). Conclusions: Despite low birth weight preterm neonates had significantly lower serum zinc levels of cord blood than healthy term neonates, the correlation between cord blood zinc levels and birth weight and gestational age was lower. The results are not enough to relate the change in cord blood zinc concentration to the birth weight values or gestational period. In relation to complicated pregnancies, further studies regarding zinc levels in blood in our population are required.
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    Agricultural Sciences 01/2014; DOI:10.4236/as.2014.52011

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