Maternal and Cord Blood Serum Levels of Zinc, Copper, and Iron in Healthy Pregnant Jordanian Women

The Journal of Trace Elements in Experimental Medicine 01/2004; 17(1):1 - 8. DOI: 10.1002/jtra.10032


Altered plasma levels of zinc, copper, and iron during pregnancy are known to have profound effects on pregnant women and their neonates. The status of these elements is not known in pregnant women in Jordan. During the three trimesters of pregnancy, blood specimens were collected from 186 healthy pregnant women aged 17–45 years and from cord blood of 92 of their neonates. The mean neonatal birth weight was 3.34 ± 0.44 kg. Maternal and cord blood serum levels of zinc, copper, and iron were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and hemoglobin concentration was determined by hematology cell counter. The results indicate significantly lower serum zinc levels and higher copper and iron levels in cord blood than in maternal blood. During the three trimesters of pregnancy, the serum levels of zinc and copper significantly decreased and increased, respectively, whereas the levels of serum iron were unchanged. Significant positive correlation was observed only between zinc levels of cord blood and birth weight. During third trimester, the mean serum levels of zinc and iron were significantly lower in anemic pregnant women (group I: Hb less than 11.0 g/dL, n = 36) than that in nonanemic pregnant women (group II: Hb > or = 11.0 g/dL, n = 56). There was no noticeable difference between group I and group II regarding cord blood parameters on one hand and neonatal birth weight on the other hand. Similar significant positive correlation was observed between serum zinc levels of cord blood and birth weight in both groups. These results indicate that Jordanian women during pregnancy follow a well-balanced and adequate diet regime. J. Trace Elem. Exp. Med. 17:1–8, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Download full-text


Available from: Ali Elkarmi,
92 Reads
  • Source
    • "Concentrations for three of the iron-status indicators (i.e., ferritin, iron and transferrin saturation) appeared to substantially increase from mother to infant among participants in this study. These results are in close agreement with previous reports [32,33]. While many questions exist concerning the mechanisms by which iron is transferred to the fetus, previous findings indicate that most of the physiologic regulation of iron transfer to the fetus occurs at the level of the gut and suggests that the iron needs of the fetus take priority over maternal requirements [34]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background In developing countries, deficiencies in essential micronutrients are common, particularly in pregnant women. Although, biochemical indicators of diet and nutrition are useful to assess nutritional status, few studies have examined such indicators throughout pregnancy in women in developing countries. Methods The primary objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of 78 Peruvian women throughout pregnancy for 16 different nutritional indicators including fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids, iron-status indicators, and selenium. Venous blood samples from which serum was prepared were collected during trimesters one (n = 78), two (n = 65), three (n = 62), and at term via the umbilical cord (n = 52). Questionnaires were completed to determine the demographic characteristics of subjects. Linear mixed effects models were used to study the associations between each maternal indicator and the demographic characteristics. Results None of the women were vitamin A and E deficient at any stage of pregnancy and only 1/62 women (1.6%) was selenium deficient during the third trimester. However, 6.4%, 44% and 64% of women had ferritin levels indicative of iron deficiency during the first, second and third trimester, respectively. Statistically significant changes (p ≤ 0.05) throughout pregnancy were noted for 15/16 nutritional indicators for this Peruvian cohort, with little-to-no association with demographic characteristics. Three carotenoids (beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and trans-lycopene) were significantly associated with education status, while trans-lycopene was associated with age and beta-cryptoxanthin with SES (p < 0.05). Concentrations of retinol, tocopherol, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein + zeaxanthin and selenium were lower in cord serum compared with maternal serum (p < 0.05). Conversely, levels of iron status indicators (ferritin, transferrin saturation and iron) were higher in cord serum (p < 0.05). Conclusion The increasing prevalence of iron deficiency throughout pregnancy in these Peruvian women was expected. It was surprising though not to find deficiencies in other nutrients. The results highlight the importance of continual monitoring of women throughout pregnancy for iron deficiency which could be caused by increasing fetal needs and/or inadequate iron intake as pregnancy progresses.
    Nutrition Journal 06/2013; 12(1):80. DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-12-80 · 2.60 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The paper presents a method for the fast, simple and reliable routine determination of As, Ba, Be, Co, Cd, Cu, Cr, In, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Pt, Rh, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, U, V, W and Zn in urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with an octopole based collision cell. The complete method validation for all elements is described, including the evaluation of short- and long-term stability, the analysis of different reference materials and the discussion of precision and accuracy in internal and external quality assurance. The urine samples were analysed directly after a 1/5 (v/v) dilution with 1% (v/v) nitric acid. The sample introduction system consisted of a robust Babington nebulizer for sample introduction into the ICP and a torch with an injector tube with an inner diameter of 2.5 mm. Combined with a low sample aspiration rate (0.4 ml min−1) these applied ICP operating conditions enable the analysis of 500 samples without clogging of the nebulizer and deposition of particles in the injector tube. Limits of detection are in the range 0.4 ng l−1 (for U) to 143 ng l−1 (for Se) calculated to the undiluted urine. Spectral interferences from polyatomic ions were removed by adding 3.2 ml min−1 helium (for As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Mn, Ni, Rh, V, Zn) or 3.4 ml min−1 hydrogen (for Se) as collision gas. The analysis results of 63 real urine samples from non-exposed human subjects are presented. ICP-MS fitted with a collision cell enables the simultaneous determination of all 23 elements either in their essential concentration range or at concentration levels relevant for occupational and environmental health. For some elements (Rh, Pt, W, Mn) most of the concentrations in urine are below the limit of quantification, for other elements (Li, Pb, Co, Tl Cu, Zn, Se) good agreement with previous studies was found, while for a further group of elements (Be, Cr, Ni, Cd) new results or useful statistical data are presented.
    Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 12/2004; 19(12). DOI:10.1039/b410630j · 3.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This is the fifteenth ASU to review literature relevant to clinical and biological specimens, foods and beverages. Two of the original three writers are still involved in preparing this Update and the other authors have also been part of the team for several years. However, in accepting a new role within the MAFF Central Science Laboratory Linda Owen will no longer be able to write for the review and we shall miss her valuable contribution. Although there have been many changes and important innovations during the fifteen years most have been gradual developments which were discerned after a few years' consolidation. As far as this year is concerned, those items which we identified in the last review—in vivo analyses by XRF, high resolution ICP-MS and electrospray MS—are featured again. Perhaps the most exciting of the emerging techniques is capillary electrophoresis for separation/speciation coupled to a detection system such as ICP-MS. The potential of these approaches has been hinted at in the last year or so but, with the development of effective coupling technology, results are now beginning to appear.
    Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 04/2005; 20(4). DOI:10.1039/b501936b · 3.47 Impact Factor
Show more