The Kosher and Halal Food Laws

Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety (Impact Factor: 4.18). 06/2003; 2(3):111 - 127. DOI: 10.1111/j.1541-4337.2003.tb00018.x


Knowledge of the kosher and halal dietary laws is important to the Jewish and Muslim populations who observe these laws and to food companies that wish to market to these populations and to interested consumers who do not observe these laws. The kosher dietary laws determine which foods are “fit or proper” for Jews and deal predominantly with 3 issues: allowed animals, the prohibition of blood, and the prohibition of mixing milk and meat. These laws are derived from the Torah and the oral law received by Moses on Mount Sinai (Talmud). Additional laws cover other areas such as grape products, cheese, baking, cooking, tithing, and foods that may not be eaten during the Jewish festival of Passover. Halal laws are derived from the Quran and the Hadith, the traditions of the prophet Muhammad. As with Kosher laws, there are specific allowed animals and a prohibition of the consumption of blood. Additionally, alcohol is prohibited.

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    • "Comparison of buffalo cottage cheese made from an aqueous extract of W. coagulans with commercial calf rennet has been studied [11] [12] [13]. Based on its vegetable origin, W. coagulans based milk processing has a great commercial significance in large vegetarian food market, addressing vegetarians, vegans, kosher and halal food requirements and where use of animal based rennet is ethically or religiously prohibited [14]. Various formulations based on Withania species in global trade are poorly characterized. "
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    ABSTRACT: A method for the concurrent determination of six known steroidal lactones (syn. withanolides or withasteroids), namely withaferin A, withanolide H, withanolide K, withanolide A, withacaogulin H, and withanolide J in Withania coagulans extracts was developed. Extracts of Withania species and purified withanolides are considered among the most important natural products used for medicinal purposes. Methanolic extract of plant material was subjected to reverse phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with electrospray (JetStream ESI) triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in the Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode. Satisfactory separation of withanolide component was achieved within 9 min on UHPLC runtime. The limits of detection (LOD) and the limits of quantitation (LOQs) for the six withanolides ranged between 0.040 to 4.80 ng/mL, and 0.13 to 16 ng/mL, respectively. Linear responses were attained for all six withanolides in two orders of magnitude with the linear regression coefficient values ⩾0.998. At the five QC levels inspected, the Relative Standard Deviations (RSD) were found below 5% in most cases. The newly developed method is fast, precise, and sensitive, therefore, the method can be used for high-throughput quantification of various withanolides in W. coagulans extract, and other herbal formulations, derived from W. coagulans.
    Steroids 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.steroids.2015.09.011 · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    • "Food products containing pork are of great concern to followers of Islamic and Jewish religions. Both religions prohibit the consumption of pork in any products (Regenstein et al. 2003; Bonne and Verbeke 2008). Besides, diets rich in pork are known to associate with certain health risk, such as hypercholesterolemia and coronary heart disease with daily intake (Rashood et al. 1995). "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The use of chemometrics to analyse infrared spectra to predict pork adulteration in the beef jerky (dendeng) was explored. In the first step, the analysis of pork in the beef jerky formulation was conducted by blending the beef jerky with pork at 5–80 % levels. Then, they were powdered and classified into training set and test set. The second step, the spectra of the two sets was recorded by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy using atenuated total reflection (ATR) cell on the basis of spectral data at frequency region 4000– 700 cm−1. The spectra was categorised into four data sets, i.e. (a) spectra in the whole region as data set 1; (b) spectra in the fingerprint region (1500–600 cm−1) as data set 2; (c) spectra in the whole region with treatment as data set 3; and (d) spectra in the fingerprint region with treatment as data set 4. The third step, the chemometric analysis were employed using three class-modelling techniques (i.e. LDA, SIMCA, and SVM) toward the data sets. Finally, the best result of the models towards the data sets on the adulteration analysis of the samples were selected and the best model was compared with the ELISA method. Fromthe chemometric results, the LDA model on the data set 1 was found to be the best model, since it could classify and predict 100 % accuracy of the sample tested. The LDA model was applied toward the real samples of the beef jerky marketed in Jember, and the results showed that the LDA model developed was in good agreement with the ELISA method.
    Journal of Food Science and Technology -Mysore- 06/2015; DOI 10.1007/s13197-015-1882-4(12). DOI:10.1007/s13197-015-1882-4 · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    • "We argue that in the context of Halal food certification, firms need to gain recognition from the sensitive Muslim consumers , and not from professional association or industrial network. It is customary and acknowledged that Muslim consume Halal food as an obligation to the teaching of Islam and to safeguard their faith [25] [26]. On this basis Halal food consumption is a norm and firms are compelled to satisfy the demand for Halal food because failure to do so causes them to miss out on a highly lucrative consumer market. "
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    ABSTRACT: Current literature on Halal food certification are largely focused on consumerism, but less attention on the manufacturer and supply-side of the Halal food chain. Although Halal food certification literature is growing, the field lack theoretical foundation and the uneven focus of Halal certification research indicate that theoretical application is severely deficient. Acknowledging the shortcomings, this paper set out to explore the drivers that motivate firms in implementing Halal food certification, and examines the institutional theory on why business enterprises engage in Halal food certification. Literature in Halal, Halal certification, and institutional model are synthesised to conceptualise the motivational factors in implementing Halal food certificate. This paper argues that the coercive, normative, and mimetic isomorphism are the motivational factors behind the implementation of Halal food certification. The paper serves as a foundation for future research undertakings and entices more academic arguments to further fine-tune the suggested propositions.
    International Malaysia Halal Conference (IMHALAL) 2015, Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre, Malaysia; 04/2015
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