Numerical Study of the Aerodynamic Effects of Septoplasty and Partial Lateral Turbinectomy

The Laryngoscope (Impact Factor: 1.98). 01/2008; 118(2):330 - 334. DOI: 10.1097/MLG.0b013e318159aa26
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Objectives: To investigate, first, the effects of septal deviation and concha bullosa on nasal airflow, and second, the aerodynamic changes induced by septoplasty and partial lateral turbinectomy, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD).Methods: A three-dimensional model of a nasal cavity was generated using paranasal sinus computed tomography images of a cadaver with concha bullosa and septal deviation. Virtual septoplasty and partial lateral turbinectomy were performed on this model to generate a second model representing the postoperative anatomy. Aerodynamics of the nasal cavity in the presence of concha bullosa and septal deviation as well as postoperative changes due to the virtual surgery were analyzed by performing CFD simulations on both models. Inspiratory airflow with a constant flow rate of 500 mL/second was used throughout the analyses.Results: In the preoperative model, the airflow mostly pass through a narrow area close to the base of the nasal cavity. Following the virtual operation, a general drop in the maximum intranasal air speed is observed with a significant increase of the airflow through right middle meatus. While in the preoperative model the greatest reduction in pressure is found to be in the localization of anterior septal deviation on the right side and confined to a very short segment, for the postoperative model, it is observed to be in the nasal valve region in both nasal cavities. Following septoplasty and partial lateral turbinectomy, total nasal resistance is reduced significantly.Conclusions: CFD simulations promise to make great contributions to understand the airflow characteristics of healthy and pathologic noses. Before surgery, planning for any specific intervention using CFD techniques on the nasal cavity model of the patient may help foreseeing the aerodynamic effects of the operation and might increase the success rate of the surgical treatment.

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    ABSTRACT: Computational fluid dynamics has been adapted to studying nasal aerodynamics. To review current literature on CFD studies, with an emphasis on normal nasal airflow, the impact of sinonasal pathology on airflow, and implications on nasal physiology. The objective is to provide the rhinologists with a greater understanding of nasal airflow and how symptomatology of sinonasal disease may be explained via CFD simulations. The nasal valve region redirects inspiratory airstreams over the inferior turbinate in a high turbulent kinetic energy, which is important in heat and moisture exchange. The bulk of airflow occurs in the common meatus with small streams traversing the olfactory groove, increasing during sniffing. Septal deviation and enlarged inferior turbinate causes redistribution of airflow, changes in intranasal pressure and increased turbulence. High velocity airflow and wall shear stress at the septal perforation causes desiccation and mucosal damage. The airflow within an atrophic nasal cavity is predominantly laminar with minimal contact with nasal mucosa. The inferior turbinate is an important organ for air conditioning and preservation during surgery is highlighted. Despite some limitations of CFD simulations, this technology has improved understanding of the complex nasal anatomy and the implications of disease and surgery on physiology.
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