Structural classification of biotin carboxyl carrier proteins.
ABSTRACT We gathered primary and tertiary structures of acyl-CoA carboxylases from public databases, and established that members of their biotin carboxylase (BC) and biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) domains occur in one family each and that members of their carboxyl transferase (CT) domains occur in two families. Protein families have members similar in primary and tertiary structure that probably have descended from the same protein ancestor. The BCCP domains complexed with biotin in acyl and acyl-CoA carboxylases transfer bicarbonate ions from BC domains to CT domains, enabling the latter to carboxylate acyl and acyl-CoA moieties. We separated the BCCP domains into four subfamilies based on more subtle primary structure differences. Members of different BCCP subfamilies often are produced by different types of organisms and are associated with different carboxylases.
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ABSTRACT: All acyl carrier protein primary and tertiary structures were gathered into the ThYme database. They are classified into 16 families by amino acid sequence similarity, with members of the different families having sequences with statistically highly significant differences. These classifications are supported by tertiary structure superposition analysis. Tertiary structures from a number of families are very similar, suggesting that these families may come from a single distant ancestor. Normal vibrational mode analysis was conducted on experimentally determined freestanding structures, showing greater fluctuations at chain termini and loops than in most helices. Their modes overlap more so within families than between different families. The tertiary structures of three acyl carrier protein families that lacked any known structures were predicted as well.Protein Science 02/2012; 21(5):655-66. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An efficient means for generating mutation data matrices from large numbers of protein sequences is presented here. By means of an approximate peptide-based sequence comparison algorithm, the set sequences are clustered at the 85% identity level. The closest relating pairs of sequences are aligned, and observed amino acid exchanges tallied in a matrix. The raw mutation frequency matrix is processed in a similar way to that described by Dayhoff et al. (1978), and so the resulting matrices may be easily used in current sequence analysis applications, in place of the standard mutation data matrices, which have not been updated for 13 years. The method is fast enough to process the entire SWISS-PROT databank in 20 h on a Sun SPARCstation 1, and is fast enough to generate a matrix from a specific family or class of proteins in minutes. Differences observed between our 250 PAM mutation data matrix and the matrix calculated by Dayhoff et al. are briefly discussed.Computer applications in the biosciences: CABIOS 07/1992; 8(3):275-82.
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ABSTRACT: Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase catalyzes the first committed step of fatty acid biosynthesis. Universally, this reaction involves three functional components all related to a carboxybiotinyl intermediate. A biotinyl domain shuttles its covalently attached biotin prosthetic group between the active sites of a biotin carboxylase and a carboxyl transferase. In Escherichia coli, the three components reside in separate subunits: a biotinyl domain is the functional portion of one of these, biotin carboxy carrier protein (BCCP). We have expressed natural and selenomethionyl (Se-met) BCCP from E. coli as biotinylated recombinant proteins, proteolyzed them with subtilisin Carlsberg to produce the biotinyl domains BCCP and Se-met BCCPsc, determined the crystal structure of Se-met BCCPsc using a modified version of the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) phasing protocol, and refined the structure for the natural BCCPsc at 1.8 A resolution. The structure may be described as a capped beta sandwich with quasi-dyad symmetry. Each half contains a characteristic hammerhead motif. The biotinylated lysin is located at a hairpin beta turn which connects the two symmetric halves of the molecule, and its biotinyl group interacts with a non-symmetric protrusion from the core. This first crystal structure of a biotinyl domain helps to unravel the central role of such domains in reactions catalyzed by biotin-dependent carboxylases. The hammerhead structure observed twice in BCCPsc may be regarded as the basic structural motif of biotinyl and lipoyl domains of a superfamily of enzymes. The new MAD phasing techniques developed in the course of determining this structure enhance the power of the MAD method.Structure 01/1996; 3(12):1407-19. · 5.99 Impact Factor