Native and denatured forms of proteins can be discriminated at edge plane carbon electrodes.
ABSTRACT In an attempt to develop a label-free electrochemical method for detection of changes in protein structures based on oxidizability of tyrosine and tryptophan residues we tested different types of carbon electrodes. We found that using edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrode (EPGE) we can discriminate between native and denatured forms of human serum albumin (HSA) and of other proteins, such as bovine and chicken serum albumin, aldolase and concanavalin. Treatment of natively unfolded α-synuclein with 8 M urea resulted only in a small change in the tyrosine oxidation peak, in a good agreement with absence of highly ordered structure in this protein. Using square wave voltammetry with EPGE we were able to follow the course of HSA denaturation at different urea concentrations. The electrochemical denaturation curve agreed reasonably well with that based on intrinsic fluorescence of tyrosine and tryptophan. It can be expected that the electrochemical method will be applicable to a large number of proteins and may become useful in biomedicine and proteomics.
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ABSTRACT: Several severe neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and prion-associated transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, have been linked to dysregulation of specific proteins capable of self-assembly into deleterious fibrillar aggregates termed amyloids. A wide range of analytical techniques has been used to clarify the mechanisms of these protein-misfolding processes, in the hope of developing effective therapeutic treatment. Most of these studies have relied heavily on conventional methods of protein characterization, notably circular dichroism spectroscopy, thioflavin T fluorescence, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, which are particularly suitable for monitoring later-stage aggregate formation. Although electrochemical methods of protein detection have existed for some time, they have only recently gained prominence as a powerful tool for studying the early stages of protein aggregation during which the more toxic soluble amyloid species form. Electrochemical detection methods include direct detection of intrinsic redox-active amino acid residues, protein-catalyzed hydrogen evolution, use of extrinsic β-sheet binding mediators, and impedance spectroscopy. In this review, we evaluate the use of electrochemistry for study of protein aggregation related to neurodegenerative disorders.Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 03/2013; · 3.66 Impact Factor