Numb expression and asymmetric versus symmetric cell division in distal embryonic lung epithelium.
ABSTRACT Proper balance between self-renewal and differentiation of lung-specific progenitors is absolutely required for normal lung morphogenesis/regeneration. Therefore, understanding the behavior of lung epithelial stem/progenitor cells could identify innovative solutions for restoring normal lung morphogenesis and/or regeneration. The Notch inhibitor Numb is a key determinant of asymmetric or symmetric cell division and hence cell fate. Yet Numb proximal-distal expression pattern and symmetric versus asymmetric division are uncharacterized during lung epithelial development. Herein, the authors find that the cell fate determinant Numb is highly expressed and asymmetrically distributed at the apical side of distal epithelial progenitors and segregated to one daughter cell in most mitotic cells. Knocking down Numb in MLE15 epithelial cells significantly increased the number of cells expressing the progenitor cell markers Sox9/Id2. Furthermore, cadherin hole analysis revealed that most distal epithelial stem/progenitor cells in embryonic lungs divide asymmetrically; with their cleavage, planes are predicted to bypass the cadherin hole, resulting in asymmetric distribution of the cadherin hole to the daughter cells. These novel findings provide evidence for asymmetric cell division in distal epithelial stem/progenitor cells of embryonic lungs and a framework for future translationally oriented studies in this area.
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ABSTRACT: BackgroundInterstitial deletions of chromosome bands 14q24.1q24.3 are very rare with only three reported cases.ResultsWe describe a 7-year-old boy with a 5.345 Mb de novo interstitial deletion at 14q24.1q24.3 band detected by array-CGH who had a complex phenotype characterized by seizures, congenital heart defects, dysmorphisms, psychomotor delay, and bronchopulmonary, skeletal, and brain anomalies.ConclusionThe deleted region contains numerous genes, but we focused our attention on three of them (C14orf169, NUMB, and PSEN1), which could account, at least partially, for the phenotype of the boy. We therefore discuss the involvement of these genes and the observed phenotype compared to that of previously described patients.Molecular Cytogenetics 07/2014; 7:49. DOI:10.1186/1755-8166-7-49 · 2.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oriented cell division is a key regulator of tissue architecture and crucial for morphogenesis and homeostasis. Balanced regulation of proliferation and differentiation is an essential property of tissues not only to drive morphogenesis but also to maintain and restore homeostasis. In many tissues orientation of cell division is coupled to the regulation of differentiation producing daughters with similar (symmetric cell division, SCD) or differential fate (asymmetric cell division, ACD). This allows the organism to generate cell lineage diversity from a small pool of stem and progenitor cells. Division orientation and/or the ratio of ACD/SCD need to be tightly controlled as loss or an altered division orientation can promote overgrowth, alter tissue architecture and aberrant differentiation, and has been linked to morphogenetic diseases, cancer and aging. A key requirement for oriented division is the presence of a polarity axis, which can be established through cell intrinsic and/or extrinsic signals. Polarity proteins translate such internal and external cues to drive polarization. In this review we will focus on the role of the polarity complex aPKC/Par3/Par6 in the regulation of division orientation and cell fate in different mammalian epithelia. We will compare the conserved function of this complex in mitotic spindle orientation and distribution of cell fate determinants and highlight common and differential mechanisms in which this complex is used by tissues to adapt division orientation and cell fate to the specific properties of the epithelium.Experimental Cell Research 08/2014; 328(2). DOI:10.1016/j.yexcr.2014.08.008 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: New insights have been added to identification, behavior and cellular properties of embryonic and tissue-specific stem cells over the last few years. The modes of stem cell division, asymmetric vs. symmetric, are tightly regulated during development and regeneration. The proper choice of a stem cell to divide asymmetrically or symmetrically has great consequences for development and disease because inappropriate asymmetric division disrupts organ morphogenesis, whereas uncontrolled symmetric division induces tumorigenesis. Therefore, understanding the behavior of lung stem cells could identify innovative solutions for restoring normal morphogenesis and/or regeneration of different organs. In this concise review, we describe recent studies in our laboratory about the mode of division of lung epithelial stem cells. We also compare asymmetric cell division (ACD) in the lung stem cells with other tissues in different organisms.Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology 07/2014; 2:33. DOI:10.3389/fcell.2014.00033