Detection of congenital heart defects throughout pregnancy; impact of first trimester ultrasound screening for cardiac abnormalities.
ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate prospectively the efficacy to screen for congenital heart defects (CHD) during the first trimester nuchal translucency (NT) ultrasound examination by assessing the four chambers' view of fetal heart. Methods: Pregnancies that were examined prospectively by ultrasound in the first trimester (11th-14th week), the second (19th-24th week) and third trimester were included in the study. 3774 fetuses were examined and fetal heart was assessed during the NT scan by examining the four chambers view. Detailed echocardiography was performed during the anomaly and growth scans. Diagnosis of congenital heart defects (CHD) was further confirmed by a fetal cardiologist. Results: The four chambers view was obtained in 99.52% of the cases. CHD were diagnosed in 29 fetuses (0.77%). Thirteen cases (44.8%) were detected during the 11-13 weeks' scan, 14 cases (48.3%) during the anomaly scan, 1 CHD (3.5%) during the third trimester scan and 1 case (3.5%) postpartum. Conclusion: Assessment of the four chambers of fetal heart early in pregnancy was feasible and allowed the detection of 45% of CHD. Additional parameters of fetal cardiac anatomy during the NT scan may further improve the detection rate providing pregnancy management information early in the first trimester.
- SourceAvailable from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To analyse patient data to elucidate the apparent association between an abnormal karyotype and tricuspid regurgitation found during fetal echocardiography at early gestations. Tertiary referral centre for fetal medicine and cardiology. Fetuses between 11 and 14 weeks' gestation were selected for detailed echocardiography. Referral reasons were increased nuchal translucency, a suspected cardiac or extracardiac malformation, and a family history of cardiac malformation. The fetus was imaged transabdominally. The four chamber view, outflow tracts, arterial duct, and aortic arch were assessed on cross sectional imaging and colour flow mapping. Pulsed Doppler of the atrioventricular valves was recorded if possible. Subsequently, the fetal karyotype was ascertained by chorionic villous sampling. Pulsed Doppler recording of the tricuspid valve was obtained for 262 fetuses. Tricuspid regurgitation was present in 70 (27%) of these, of whom 58 (83%) proved to have karyotype anomalies. In contrast, 68 (35%) of those without tricuspid regurgitation were found to have karyotype anomalies (95% confidence interval 36% to 59%, p < 0.001). Structural heart defects were detected in 34 of the 58 (59%) with tricuspid regurgitation and in 22 (32%) of those without. The chromosome defect most frequently found to be associated with tricuspid regurgitation was trisomy 21, but all types of karyotypic anomalies were seen in association. A careful search for tricuspid regurgitation is an important aspect of the evaluation of the early fetus, as this is frequently a marker for chromosomal defects even in the absence of structural heart disease.Heart (British Cardiac Society) 09/2003; 89(9):1071-3. · 5.01 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Our objective was to determine the efficacy of the four-chamber view of the fetal heart in routine ultrasonographic examination as a screening tool for congenital heart defects. A prospective cohort study compared the detection rate of congenital heart defects among 5336 pregnant women screened with the ultrasonographic four-chamber view of the fetal heart from 1987 through 1989 with that among 3680 patients examined ultrasonographically without the four-chamber view during the 2 preceding years (1985 through 1986). All patients were followed until delivery or termination of pregnancy, and clinical or autopsy confirmation of prenatal findings were obtained on all cases. The overall incidence of congenital heart diseases was 5.2 per 1000 (47/9016). During the years 1985 through 1986 15 neonates with congenital heart diseases were identified, seven of which were prenatally diagnosed (sensitivity 43%). During the period 1987 through 1989 a four-chamber view of the fetal heart was obtained in 95% of cases; 32 cases of congenital heart disease occurred, 26 of which were diagnosed antenatally (sensitivity 81%; p = 0.01). Two false-positive diagnoses were made during the second time period, giving a specificity of 99.9%. The four-chamber view of the fetal heart is easily obtained, does not significantly increase the duration of a routine ultrasonographic examination, and has an excellent sensitivity for the identification of congenital heart diseases.American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 11/1992; 167(4 Pt 1):1000-3. · 3.88 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To describe the normal cardiac morphology as seen by transvaginal ultrasound imaging in the first trimester fetus and to compare it with the morphology of the heart as seen by microdissection at the same gestational age. In 53 mothers undergoing early sonography, the fetal heart was examined and the images recorded. The gestational age range was 5-12 weeks of gestation, which represents 21 to 70 days after conception. Images were analysed frame by frame and compared with the anatomy of embryos and fetuses at the same gestational ages. After the 9th week of gestation, four cardiac chambers, the aortic origin, and the pulmonary artery could be identified on cross sectional echocardiography in conjunction with colour flow Doppler. At 9 weeks, the apex pointed anteriorly and the right ventricle and pulmonary artery lay to the right of the midline. By the 11th week of gestation, the apex pointed to the left and the pulmonary artery lay to the left of the midline as in the older fetus. Between 9 and 12 weeks' gestation the aorta was larger than the pulmonary artery. These findings were confirmed in the microdissected hearts. The current quality of ultrasound images obtained using transvaginal transducers in the first trimester fetus allows the study of fetal cardiac anatomy. Some of the later developmental changes can be demonstrated. As technology improves further the details of earlier cardiac morphogenesis may also become visible.Heart (British Cardiac Society) 02/1997; 77(1):68-72. · 5.01 Impact Factor