Ocular toxoplasmosis II: clinical features, pathology and management
ABSTRACT The term, ocular toxoplasmosis, refers to eye disease related to infection with the parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Recurrent posterior uveitis is the typical form of this disease, characterized by unilateral, necrotizing retinitis with secondary choroiditis, occurring adjacent to a pigmented retinochoroidal scar and associated with retinal vasculitis and vitritis. Multiple atypical presentations are also described, and severe inflammation is observed in immunocompromised patients. Histopathological correlations demonstrate focal coagulative retinal necrosis, and early in the course of the disease, this inflammation is based in the inner retina. For typical ocular toxoplasmosis, a diagnosis is easily made on clinical examination. In atypical cases, ocular fluid testing to detect parasite DNA by polymerase chain reaction or to determine intraocular production of specific antibody may be extremely helpful for establishing etiology. Given the high seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in most communities, serological testing for T. gondii antibodies is generally not useful. Despite a lack of published evidence for effectiveness of current therapies, most ophthalmologists elect to treat patients with ocular toxoplasmosis that reduces or threatens to impact vision. Classic therapy consists of oral pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, plus systemic corticosteroid. Substantial toxicity of this drug combination has spurred interest in alternative antimicrobials, as well as local forms of drug delivery. At this time, however, no therapeutic approach is curative of ocular toxoplasmosis. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.
SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing are rare in ocular toxoplasmosis. We report a case of toxoplasmic CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. A healthy 83-year-old male developed left panuveitis. Funduscopic examination of the left eye showed a swollen optic disc and sheathing of the retinal artery with a dense vitreous haze and a white retinal lesion. Serum anti-toxoplasma antibodies were positive in a latex agglutination assay. Vitrectomy was performed to improve visualization of the retinal lesions and for examination of causative microorganisms. A postoperative fundus examination revealed CRAO with optic disc involvement and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. Qualitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction detected the Toxoplasma gondii B1 gene in ocular fluid from both the aqueous and vitreous humor. The presumed diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis was made and treatment was started with prednisone and acetylspiramycin with subsequent improvement. Two months later, the patient developed active retinochoroiditis in the left eye. After 6 weeks of anti-toxoplasma therapy, the disease involuted. Retinal vascular occlusions and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing are rare in toxoplasmosis. This is the first case report of toxoplasmic CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. The diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis should be considered in patients with retinal artery occlusions and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing associated with inflammation.Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.) 04/2014; 8:789-792. DOI:10.2147/OPTH.S58669
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: T. gondii is a highly successful global pathogen that is remarkable in its ability to infect nearly any nucleated cell in any warm-blooded animal. Infection with T. gondii typically occurs through the ingestion of contaminated food or water, but the parasite then breaches the intestinal epithelial barrier and spreads from the lamina propria to a large variety of other organs in the body. A key feature of T. gondii pathogenesis is the parasite's ability to cross formidable biological barriers in the infected host and enter tissues such as the brain, eye, and placenta. The dissemination of T. gondii into these organs underlies the severe disease that accompanies human toxoplasmosis. In this review we will focus on seminal studies as well as exciting recent findings that have shaped our current understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which T. gondii journeys throughout the host and enters the vital organs to cause disease.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Parasite Immunology 11/2014; 37(3). DOI:10.1111/pim.12163 · 1.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To report the pattern of uveitis in a major ophthalmology center in the central district of Thailand. Methods: A retrospective study was performed in uveitis cases visiting the Department of Ophthalmology at Rajavithi Hospital, Thailand, from January 2007 to October 2012. Results: Four hundred and forty-six patients (mean age 42 years, female 53.8%) were included in the study. Uveitis was unilateral in 51.1% of cases. Anterior uveitis was the most common (44.8%) case, closely followed by panuveitis (40%), posterior uveitis (14.3%), and intermediate uveitis (0.9%). Specific diagnosis was established in 51.6% of patients. The three most common specific diagnoses were Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease (22.4%), followed by Behçet disease (6.7%) and herpetic anterior uveitis (5.8%). Conclusions: The most common type of noninfectious uveitis group was VKH, while herpetic anterior uveitis was the most common type of infectious uveitis in the central district of Thailand.Ocular Immunology and Inflammation 08/2014; DOI:10.3109/09273948.2014.943773 · 1.44 Impact Factor