"Substantial toxicity of this drug combination has spurred interest in alternative antimicrobials, as well as local forms of drug delivery. At this time, however, no therapeutic approach is curative of ocular toxoplasmosis  "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection with the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most frequent parasitic infections worldwide and the common infection of the retina in the general population. We describe a case report of a chorioretinitis in an immunocompetent 8-year-old patient as a consequence of a underdiagnosed neonatal toxoplasmosis. The boy was successfully managed with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine. The present case we would like to empathize the importance of considering toxoplasma gondii as a possible cause of chorioretinitis in children living in developed countries and we provide a detailed reviewed of the literature about treatment of Toxoplasma gondii infection.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease 08/2014; 4(4):323–328. DOI:10.1016/S2222-1808(14)60582-X
"Ocular manifestations associated with toxoplasmosis may be caused by an active infection or an immunologic reaction in the absence of any infectious agent.1 Our case presented with CRAO with optic disc involvement and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing as a primary manifestation, in contrast to cases with this condition diagnosed as a secondary manifestation to preexisting retinochoroiditis. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing are rare in ocular toxoplasmosis. We report a case of toxoplasmic CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. A healthy 83-year-old male developed left panuveitis. Funduscopic examination of the left eye showed a swollen optic disc and sheathing of the retinal artery with a dense vitreous haze and a white retinal lesion. Serum anti-toxoplasma antibodies were positive in a latex agglutination assay. Vitrectomy was performed to improve visualization of the retinal lesions and for examination of causative microorganisms. A postoperative fundus examination revealed CRAO with optic disc involvement and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. Qualitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction detected the Toxoplasma gondii B1 gene in ocular fluid from both the aqueous and vitreous humor. The presumed diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis was made and treatment was started with prednisone and acetylspiramycin with subsequent improvement. Two months later, the patient developed active retinochoroiditis in the left eye. After 6 weeks of anti-toxoplasma therapy, the disease involuted. Retinal vascular occlusions and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing are rare in toxoplasmosis. This is the first case report of toxoplasmic CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. The diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis should be considered in patients with retinal artery occlusions and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing associated with inflammation.
"Toxoplasmosis causes destructive inflammation that targets multiple organs, including the eyes. Only a few infected individuals develop ocular lesions or toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis (TR) (Holland, 2003; Butler et al., 2013). TR is the most common identifiable cause of posterior uveitis in many parts of the world (Henderly et al., 1987; Furtado et al., 2013). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the morphometric implications in C57BL/6 mouse retina infected by Toxoplasma gondii, ME 49 strain. Twenty C57BL/6 female mice were divided into group 1 (n=8, intraperitoneally infected with 30 cysts of T. gondii ME 49 strain) and group 2 (n=12 non-infected controls). The eyes were enucleated on the 60(th) day after infection, fixed and processed for light microscopy. Changes in retinal thickness and in the perimeter/area ratio (P/A) of the retinal layers were analyzed by digital morphometry. We considered that P/A was the measurement of retinal architecture distortion induced by toxoplasmosis. This study considered the ganglion cells and nerve fiber layers as a monolayer, thus six layers of retina were evaluated: photoreceptors (PRL), outer nuclear (ONL), outer plexiform (OPL), inner nuclear (INL), inner plexiform (IPL) and ganglion cells/nerve fiber monolayer (GNL). Histological analysis of infected mouse retina showed inflammatory infiltrate, necrosis, glial reaction and distortion of the retina architecture. It also presented increased thickness (167.8 ± 24.9 μm versus 121.1 ± 15.4 μm, in controls) and increased retinal thickness within the retinitis foci (187.7 ± 16.6 μm versus 147.9 ± 12.2 μm out of the retinitis foci). A statistically significant difference in P/A was observed between infected and uninfected mouse retinas. The same was observed in PRL, OPL, INL and GNL. Retinal morphometry may be used to demonstrate differences between infected and uninfected mouse retinas.
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