Effects of salicylic acid on synthesis of rosmarinic acid and related enzymes in the suspension cultures of Salvia miltiorrhiza
ABSTRACT Rosmarinic acid (RA), a phenolic acid, is one of the important secondary metabolites produced in Salvia miltiorrhiza. To observe the influence of salicylic acid (SA), an elicitor, on the synthesis of RA and related enzymes, we treated the cell suspension cultures of S. miltiorrhiza with SA and L-a-aminooxy-beta-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP), a competitive inhibitor of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT). Under this condition, the activities of related enzymes, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and TAT were traced and assayed; the accumulative amount of RA was measured. The results showed that the PAL activity reached the peak at 4 h, 124% higher than that of the control, and the content of RA reached its maximum ((5.914 +/- 0.296) mg/g dry weight) at 8 h, after treated by 6.25 mg/L SA on day 6 of the suspension culture. The results of treatment with 0.1 micromol/L AOPP showed that AOPP affected little on the TAT activity, while the PAL activity was significantly influenced, with 44% lower than that of the control at 6 h. Meanwhile, the reduced accumulation of RA ((4.709 +/- 0.204) mg/g dry weight) paralleled with the decrease in PAL activity. The co-treatment by 0.1 micromol/L AOPP and 6.25 mg/L SA relieved the restriction imposed by AOPP on PAL, and made the cell cultures accumulate more RA than sole treatment with AOPP, indicated that SA induced the accumulation of RA in suspension cell culture of S. miltiorrhiza, and the rate-limiting effect of PAL was stronger than TAT.
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- "RA shows a great intensity for free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity. The phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the first enzyme for accumulating phenolic acid compounds in S. miltiorrhiza cell cultures , and SA could induce the production of rosmarinic acid . The aim of this work is to reveal the effects of SA and H2O2 on the accumulation of RA in S. miltiorrhiza cell cultures. "
ABSTRACT: Salicylic acid (SA) is an elicitor to induce the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in plant cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plays an important role as a key signaling molecule in response to various stimuli and is involved in the accumulation of secondary metabolites. However, the relationship between them is unclear and their synergetic functions on accumulation of secondary metabolites are unknown. In this paper, the roles of SA and H2O2 in rosmarinic acid (RA) production in Salvia miltiorrhiza cell cultures were investigated. The results showed that SA significantly enhanced H2O2 production, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, and RA accumulation. Exogenous H2O2 could also promote PAL activity and enhance RA production. If H2O2 production was inhibited by NADPH oxidase inhibitor (IMD) or scavenged by quencher (DMTU), RA accumulation would be blocked. These results indicated that H2O2 is secondary messenger for signal transduction, which can be induced by SA, significantly and promotes RA accumulation.05/2014; 2014:843764. DOI:10.1155/2014/843764
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ABSTRACT: Phenolic acids and tanshinones are two groups of bioactive ingredients in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. As a heavy metal elicitor, it has been reported that Ag+ can induce accumulations of both phenolic acids and tanshinones in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots. In this study, the effects of Ag+ treatment on accumulations of six phenolic acids and four tanshinones in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots were investigated. To further elucidate the molecular mechanism, expressions of key genes involved in the biosynthesis of these ingredients were also detected. The results showed that although the total phenolic acids content was almost not affected by Ag+, accumulations of rosmarinic acid (RA), caffeic acid and ferulic acid were significantly increased, while accumulations of salvianolic acid B (LAB), danshensu (DSU) and cinnamic acid were decreased. We speculate that LAB probably derived from the branch pathway of DSU biosynthesis. Contents of four tanshinones were enhanced by Ag+ and their accumulations were more sensitive to Ag+ than phenolic acids. Genes in the upstream biosynthetic pathways of these ingredients responded to Ag+ earlier than those in the downstream biosynthetic pathways. Ag+ probably induced the whole pathways, upregulated gene expressions from the upstream pathways to the downstream pathways, and finally resulted in the enhancement of ingredient production. Compared with phenolic acids, tanshinone production was more sensitive to Ag+ treatments. This study will help us understand how secondary metabolism in S. miltiorrhiza responds to elicitors and provide a reference for the improvement of the production of targeted compounds in the near future.Molecules 12/2014; 20(1):309-24. DOI:10.3390/molecules20010309 · 2.42 Impact Factor