The internationalization of science and its influence on academic entrepreneurship. Journal of Technology Transfer, 37(2), 192-212

The Journal of Technology Transfer (Impact Factor: 1.18). 01/2009; 37(2):192-212. DOI: 10.1007/s10961-010-9182-7
Source: RePEc


We examine whether scientists employed in foreign countries and foreign-educated native researchers are more “entrepreneurial”
than their “domestic” counterparts. We conjecture that foreign-born and foreign-educated scientists possess broader scientific
skills and social capital, which increases their likelihood that they will start their own companies. To test this hypothesis
we analyze comprehensive data from researchers at the Max Planck Society in Germany. Our findings provide strong support for
the conjecture that academic entrepreneurship can be stimulated by facilitating the mobility of scientists across countries.

KeywordsAcademic entrepreneurship–Academic spin-offs–Career mobility–Scientific mobility

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Available from: Stefan Krabel,
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    • "Increasing mobility by lowering the barriers to move across countries should be the channel to keep up with the rest of the world (see Krabel et al. 2012). Also universities, albeit more than thousands of years old, could not resist these changes and must change their strategy. "
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    ABSTRACT: Scholars in technology transfer come from a variety of different backgrounds and employ different theoretical and methodological assumptions. Such multidisciplinary approach has fertilized the evolution of a florid technology transfer literature, with insights from entrepreneurship, economics, and management. This paper brings the perspective of entrepreneurial finance into the realm of technology transfer, and identifies emerging topics that can complement our understanding of some aspects of technology transfer, especially with regard to supply-side public policies. This article introduces the rationale for the special issue dedicated to entrepreneurial finance and technology transfer. We summarize the main topics and themes covered by a selection of papers presented at the annual conference of the Technology Transfer Society in 2013, and suggest areas for future research.
    The Journal of Technology Transfer 12/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10961-014-9381-8 · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    • "Several studies mention and explain the development of USOs by assessing their patent portfolio and strategies (Dahlstrand 1997a; Shane and Stuart 2002; Di Gregorio and Shane 2003; Clarysse and Moray 2004; Genua and Nesta 2006; Clarysse et al. 2007; Salvador 2010; Krabel et al. 2012). The decision to patent is often linked to a belief in the benefits they provide, specially protection, leverage possibilities, and sources of income (Owen-Smith and Powell 2003) as well as the conviction that patents reinforce the ability of new firms to protect their technology from imitators, to attract investments, and grow (Shane and Stuart 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: The speed of internationalization of firms has attracted considerable research in the last few decades. However, with regard to a particular type of firm, university spin-offs (USOs), this line of research is still incipient. A majority of the studies on USOs highlights their main features but does not focus on internationalization. Based on the responses from 111 Portuguese USOs, of which 78 are exporters, econometric estimations indicate that: (1) the internationalization speed of USOs is critically dependent on support from technology transfer offices; (2) in line with the “learning advantages of newness” perspective, younger Portuguese USOs reveal higher levels of entrepreneurial spirit and entrepreneurial capabilities, being in a better position to internationalize earlier than older USOs; (3) USOs that operate in microelectronics/robotics internationalize faster and earlier than USOs operating in ICT/software/digital media; and (4) in contrast with the literature on born globals/international new ventures, greater involvement in R&D activities slows down the early internationalization process of USOs.
    Journal of International Entrepreneurship 10/2014; 12(3). DOI:10.1007/s10843-014-0132-6
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    • "Licensing officers may perceive that immigrant inventors are more likely to start spinoff companies than native born inventors for many different reasons. Licensing officers may believe that immigrant faculty members are more likely to start spinoffs because they are more motivated than native born faculty members, because of the personal sacrifices they have made to emigrate (Stephan and Levin 2001), because they are more productive (Lee 2004; Corley and Sabharwal 2007), or because they possess broader skills and social capital as a result of their mobility (Krabel et al. 2012). Alternatively, they may perceive immigrant faculty members to be more creative and entrepreneurial because of the selection processes inherent in the visa system (Hunt 2009) or because their backgrounds make them more likely to identify entrepreneurial opportunities (Saxenian 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: Technology licensing officers play an important role in the creation of university spinoffs. Anecdotal data suggests that licensing officers make use of the representativeness heuristic when deciding which inventors’ technologies should (not) be commercialized through the founding of new companies. In this context, use of the representativeness heuristic implies that licensing officers favor for spinoff creation the inventions of academics that “fit” the profile of a typical inventor-entrepreneur. To examine this possibility, we conduct a randomized experiment with more than 200 technology licensing officers at U.S. universities and find evidence consistent with the use of the representativeness heuristic.
    The Journal of Technology Transfer 04/2014; forthcoming(2). DOI:10.1007/s10961-014-9365-8 · 1.18 Impact Factor
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