The occludin and ZO-1 complex, defined by small angle X-ray scattering and NMR, has implications for modulating tight junction permeability.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, H171, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 06/2012; 109(27):10855-60. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1121390109
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Tight junctions (TJs) are dynamic cellular structures that are critical for compartmentalizing environments within tissues and regulating transport of small molecules, ions, and fluids. Phosphorylation-dependent binding of the transmembrane protein occludin to the structural organizing protein ZO-1 contributes to the regulation of barrier properties; however, the details of their interaction are controversial. Using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), NMR chemical shift perturbation, cross-saturation, in vitro binding, and site-directed mutagenesis experiments. we define the interface between the ZO-1 PDZ3-SH3-U5-GuK (PSG) and occludin coiled-coil (CC) domains. The interface is comprised of basic residues in PSG and an acidic region in CC. Complex formation is blocked by a peptide (REESEEYM) that corresponds to CC residues 468-475 and includes a previously uncharacterized phosphosite, with the phosphorylated version having a larger effect. Furthermore, mutation of E470 and E472 reduces cell border localization of occludin. Together, these results localize the interaction to an acidic region in CC and a predominantly basic helix V within the ZO-1 GuK domain. This model has important implications for the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of the occludin:ZO-1 complex.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Epithelial permeability is a hallmark of mucosal inflammation, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. A key component of the epithelial barrier is the apical junctional complex that forms between neighboring cells. Apical junctional complexes are made of tight junctions and adherens junctions and link to the cellular cytoskeleton via numerous adaptor proteins. Although the existence of tight and adherens junctions between epithelial cells has long been recognized, in recent years there have been significant advances in our understanding of the molecular regulation of junctional complex assembly and disassembly. Here we review current thinking about the structure and function of the apical junctional complex in airway epithelial cells, emphasizing translational aspects of relevance to cystic fibrosis and asthma. Most work to-date has been conducted using cell culture models, but technical advancements in imaging techniques suggest that we are on the verge of important new breakthroughs in this area in physiological models of airway diseases.
    American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 01/2014; · 4.15 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tight junctions (TJs) are protein complexes comprised of claudins, which anchor them in the membrane and numerous cytosolic scaffolding proteins including MAGI, MUPP1, cingulin and members of the Zonula Occludens (ZO) family. Originally, their main function was thought to be as a paracellular barrier. More recently, however, additional roles in signal transduction, differentiation and proliferation have been reported. Dysregulation is associated with a wide range of disease states, including diabetic retinopathy, irritable bowel disease and some cancers. ZO proteins and occludin form a protein complex that appears to act as a master regulator of TJ assembly/disassembly. Recent studies have highlighted the structural character of the primary ZO-1:occludin interaction and identified regions on occludin that control association and disassociation of TJ in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. We hypothesize that regions within ZO-1 in the so-called U5 and U6 regions behave in a similar manner.
    Tissue barriers. 01/2013; 1(1):e23496.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the protective effects of combinations of probiotic (Bifico) on interleukin (IL)-10-gene-deficient (IL-10 KO) mice and Caco-2 cell monolayers. IL-10 KO mice were used to assess the benefits of Bifico in vivo. IL-10 KO and control mice received approximately 1.5 × 10(8) cfu/d of Bifico for 4 wk. Colons were then removed and analyzed for epithelial barrier function by Ussing Chamber, while an ELISA was used to evaluate proinflammatory cytokines. The colon epithelial cell line, Caco-2, was used to test the benefit of Bifico in vitro. Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) and the probiotic mixture Bifico, or single probiotic strains, were applied to cultured Caco-2 monolayers. Barrier function was determined by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance and tight junction protein expression. Treatment of IL-10 KO mice with Bifico partially restored body weight, colon length, and epithelial barrier integrity to wild-type levels. In addition, IL-10 KO mice receiving Bifico treatment had reduced mucosal secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, and attenuated colonic disease. Moreover, treatment of Caco-2 monolayers with Bifico or single-strain probiotics in vitro inhibited EIEC invasion and reduced the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Bifico reduced colon inflammation in IL-10 KO mice, and promoted and improved epithelial-barrier function, enhanced resistance to EIEC invasion, and decreased proinflammatory cytokine secretion.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 04/2014; 20(16):4636-4647. · 2.43 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 19, 2014